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Rong-Hua Zhang and Antonio J. Busalacchi

-related SST perturbations differ significantly from those associated with El Niño (e.g., Xie 2004 ). As the TIW-related waves meander over the frontal region, the accompanied SST perturbations induce surface wind changes. Over cool oceans like the TIW active regions of the eastern tropical Pacific, the atmospheric wind response is local and shallow, confined to the vicinity of large SST TIW -forcing regions in the horizontal and to the atmospheric PBL in the vertical. Although the precise mechanisms by

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Hamish A. Ramsay, Lance M. Leslie, and Jeffrey D. Kepert

–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). A detailed description of MM5 is given in Grell et al. (1994) . A quadruply nested, two-way interactive grid was used to simulate TC Larry, with the finest grid spacing of 1 km used in the innermost nest as shown in Fig. 2 . The four domains have dimensions and grid spacings of 93 × 100, 27 km (D1); 220 × 210, 9 km (D2); 445 × 286, 3 km (D3); and 385 × 268, 1 km (D4) ( Fig. 2 ). In total, 46 vertical half-sigma levels were used with higher

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