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Mathew Alexander Stiller-Reeve, David B. Stephenson, and Thomas Spengler

), others use proxies for rainfall like outgoing longwave radiation ( Zhang et al. 2004 ) or those that are based on indices related to atmospheric circulation ( Wang et al. 2009 ; Zhang 2010 ). Over Bangladesh, these monsoon definitions can give varying results that sometimes compare poorly with the beliefs of local people ( Stiller-Reeve et al. 2015 ). In a previous study, researchers asked the people of Bangladesh in the locations shown in Fig. 1 when they believed the monsoon normally started, as

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Sandy Smith-Nonini

1. Introduction As a gregarious adolescent, riding ponies and climbing trees in the 1960s, summer was my favorite season. But things have changed. The year 2016 was the warmest year since modern recordkeeping began in 1880, and the third year in a row of record-breaking surface temperatures, according to both NASA and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NASA 2017 ). So summer is now a deadly season: 70 000 people died from a 2003 heat wave in Europe ( Robine et al. 2008

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Oluwatoyin Dare Kolawole, Moseki Ronald Motsholapheko, Barbara Ntombi Ngwenya, Olekae Thakadu, Gagoitseope Mmopelwa, and Donald Letsholo Kgathi

variations noticeable in global or even local weather conditions ( Sachs 2009 ; IPCC 2007 ). The second half of the twentieth century witnessed an unprecedented rise in global atmospheric temperature, and this is expected to continue if mitigation measures are not devised ( IPCC 2007 , p. 2). Although Africa will largely bear the burden of climate variability and change ( Schaeffer et al. 2013 ), it contributes less to greenhouse gas emission (GHG) compared to other continents. Droughts and floods are

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Randy A. Peppler

weather (the recurrent rhythms of plant growth and animal movement and their effects on everyday life) rather than as a phenomenon of recorded climatology (the record of averages and fluctuations of atmospheric attributes without particular regard to effects on the lives of plants, animals, and humans). To the agriculturalists, fall begins or is close when the indicators tell them so. The previously described perceived unreliability of once-trusted observational signs, seen as a concern, is forcing

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Peter Rudiak-Gould

2010 ; Kupperman 1982 ; Weber 1997 ). They overweight the importance of one-off vivid events ( Tversky and Kahneman 1982 ) and thus underinvest in climate change ( Sunstein 2006 ). Their attention is remarkably tunnel visioned and distractible ( Simons and Chabris 1999 ). Their memory is biased and incomplete. Why trust the quick-and-dirty cognition of the human animal to a task as grand and subtle as tracking changes in the earth’s atmospheric system? Visibilism becomes yet another cognitive

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