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Kyle Andrew Poyar and Nancy Beller-Simms

location. Meanwhile, jurisdictions tended to focus on climate change effects that had special local historic or economic relevance. For Chicago, local history pushed extreme heat to the forefront of the adaptation agenda. In 1995, Chicago experienced a severe heat wave that contributed to approximately 700 deaths ( Palecki et al. 2001 ). Then and current Mayor Daley was harshly criticized for the city’s lack of preparedness for preventing and responding to the event, which Lambright et al. (1996

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Tanja Wolf, Glenn McGregor, and Antonis Analitis

values, these data were grouped into deciles to form an ordinal classification of mortality and ambulance callout on non-heat-wave and heat wave days. Quality assured daily mean, maximum, and minimum temperature data were obtained from the British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC) for the London Weather Centre station situated in central London. These data were used to identify the subset of non-heat-wave and heat wave days for which mortality and ambulance callout were examined. Heat wave days were

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Nancy E. Westcott

research, and David Kristovich, Mike Timlin, and two anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. REFERENCES Bridges, C. A. , Ellis F. P. , and Taylor H. L. , 1976 : Mortality in St. Louis, Missouri, during Heat Waves in 1936, 1953, 1954, 1955, and 1966 . Environ. Res. , 12 , 38 – 48 . Changnon, D. , Gensini

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Claire Steinweg and William J. Gutowski Jr.

Assessment Program (NARCCAP) for providing the data we used. NARCCAP is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development (EPA). REFERENCES Anderson, G. B. , and Bell M. L. , 2011 : Heat waves in the United States: Mortality risk during heat waves and effect modification by heat wave characteristics in 43 U.S. communities

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Matthew J. Cutler, Jennifer R. Marlon, Peter D. Howe, and Anthony Leiserowitz

1. Introduction Heat is the leading cause of weather-related mortality in the United States and is a hazard with which much of the population has direct experience ( Borden and Cutter 2008 ). Recent research suggests that individuals in areas of greater social vulnerability more often perceive heat wave health risks, holding constant political attitudes and beliefs about climate change ( Akerlof et al. 2015 ). Heat is a health hazard that is expected to increase in frequency and intensity as

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Michelle D. Hawkins, Vankita Brown, and Jannie Ferrell

1. Introduction The National Oceanic and Atmospheric and Administration’s (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) adopted the heat index (HI) into its operations in 1979. The HI was based on the work of Robert G. Steadman, a textiles and materials professor at Colorado State University, who published his temperature–humidity index (THI) table in 1979 ( Steadman 1979 ). Steadman’s THI equations require variables that are not readily accessible for calculation from meteorological parameters

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Roberta Balstad

articles on social impacts of extreme weather events, such as Nancy E. Westcott’s article on the impacts of the 1954 midwestern U.S. heat wave ( Westcott 2011 ). Equally important, however, is research that helps us to understand ways to reduce the detrimental impacts of extreme weather events. The lead article in this issue on communicating weather forecast information to end users—in this case, to boaters—provides an example of such an approach. A plan to incorporate high-tech communications

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Scott Greene, Laurence S. Kalkstein, David M. Mills, and Jason Samenow

: Twentieth century climate model response and climate sensitivity . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 34 , L22710 , doi:10.1029/2007GL031383 . Kiehl, J. T. , Hack J. J. , Bonan G. B. , Boville B. A. , Williamson D. L. , and Rasch P. J. , 1998 : The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model: CCM3 . J. Climate , 11 , 1131 – 1149 . Klinenberg, E. , 2002 : Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago . University of Chicago Press, 328 pp . Kysely, J. , and Huth R

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Duncan Cook and Sally Garrett

take place. There is an increasing awareness that piracy off East Africa may be limited by the rough seas and increased winds that accompany monsoons ( Kingsley 2011 ; UKMTO 2011 ). Analysis of recent seasonal attack patterns, for example, suggests that pirates may alternate between the open waters of the Indian Ocean and the adjacent Gulf of Aden in response to the monsoon ( Bergen Risk Solutions 2011 ). Although no detailed studies exist, maritime experts have suggested that wave heights greater

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Matthew J. Widlansky, H. Annamalai, Stephen B. Gingerich, Curt D. Storlazzi, John J. Marra, Kevin I. Hodges, Barry Choy, and Akio Kitoh

northwestern Pacific each year ( Knapp et al. 2010 ; Schreck et al. 2014 ), with many threatening island communities. Tropical cyclones frequently occur in the region between Guam and the Philippines referred to as “typhoon alley,” where 7–8 tropical cyclones pass through during a typical year ( Fig. 1 ). Here, the warm ocean provides energy and moisture to the atmosphere that supports powerful tropical cyclones ( Fig. 2 ), which organize from atmospheric disturbances or clusters of convective storms

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