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) also is in good agree-ment with the 72-kt value for area 1. (See fig. 2, 03/1200GMT wind profile.)In conclusion, the usefulness of APT in estimat'ing themean wind speed when mountain waves appear in thepicture is shown.REFERENCESCorby, G. A., "A Preliminary Study of Atmospheric Waves UsingRadiosonde Data," Quarterly Journal of the Royal MeteorologicalSociety, Vol. 83, No. 355, Jan. 1957, pp. 49-60.Fritz, Sigmund, "The Significance of Mountain Lee Waves As SeenFrom Satellite Pictures," Journal of

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patterns and general atmos-pheric structure in the vicinity of mountainous areas.Although the distribut,ion of turbulence associated withlee waves is still under investigat,ion, some preliminaryresults indicate that the turbulent layer is confined to thearea within and below these clouds. Soaring and glideplanepilots were among the first to investigate wave clouds,and by flying these clouds, these pilots have establishednew height and distance records. Using the same tech-nique, light aircraft pilots

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Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, and Marion Maturilli

: Polar stratospheric clouds . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 17 , 385 – 388 , doi: 10.1029/GL017i004p00385 . 10.1029/GL017i004p00385 Carslaw , K. S. , and Coauthors , 1998 : Increased stratospheric ozone depletion due to mountain-induced atmospheric waves . Nature , 391 , 675 – 678 , doi: 10.1038/35589 . 10.1038/35589 Dee , D. , and Coauthors , 2011 : The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 137 , 553 – 597 , doi

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Bryce J. Weinand

dissipating in extreme eastern Texas and western Louisiana at 1500 UTC on 18 April 1999. This article describes the atmospheric conditions at the time of the eddies and identifies factors that may have contributed to their formation. 2. Synoptic conditions During the days of 17 and 18 April 1999 there was a highly amplified circulation pattern over North America. A large, positively tilted trough evident on the 400-mb map for 1200 UTC 17 April 1999 ( Fig. 4 ) extended well into the middle sections of the

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PICTURE OF THE MONTHA Turbulent RegionARTHUR H. SMITH, JR.-EnvironrnentzUS. Air Force, Washington, D.C.I/ TechnicatI Applications Center,Satellite phot,ographs of certain atmospheric conditionscan frequently be used in locating specific regions of highrisk of turbulence occurence (high risk areas).In particular,the cloud patterns associated with polar and subtropicaljet streams, which are known as areas of high turbulenceprobability, are dist'inguishable on satellite photographs.These high risk

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atmospheric hydrodynamics.This TIROS V two-frame mosaic (pass 032/031, franws'74 tlld 26) shows the region around the Canary Islands,Madeira Islands, :md R srndl portion of northwcst,ernAfrica. It was taken tlt clbout 1650 GMT, June 21, 1962,and read out at, Wdlops Station. Frunc nu~nber 26 WH.Spublished earlicr by Hubert and Kruger [I] to illust,ratesmdl-scale eddies downstream from Mndeira Isl~nd, wllichcan be seen in thr upper left. `The principnl area picturedhere is the C`nnnry Islands which extend

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David M. Schultz, Derek S. Arndt, David J. Stensrud, and Jay W. Hanna

Stoelinga (2000) who argued that the accuracy of the surface fluxes may be quite sensitive to the manner in which surface wave models are coupled to marine-circulation and atmospheric models. Model studies of the sensitivity of precipitation to land surface temperatures and fluxes are even scarcer because of the lack of verifying observations, indicating the potential for research on this topic. This event highlights the importance of accurate ground- and water-temperature observations for

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Werner Alpers, Andrei Yu. Ivanov, and Knut-Frode Dagestad

images, which are a useful resource for validating high-resolution mesoscale atmospheric models over the ocean. The SAR image presented in this paper shows the encounter of two local wind fields: a mesoscale atmospheric eddy and a foehn wind over the Black Sea. Furthermore, it shows the deflection of the foehn wind by the eddy. The paper is organized as follows: In section 2 we present the SAR image and the SAR-derived wind field and in section 3 we present a quasi-simultaneously acquired cloud

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Eric A. Hendricks, Brian D. McNoldy, and Wayne H. Schubert

brief synoptic history of Dolly is provided in section 2 . An environmental analysis is provided in section 3 . Analysis of the observed inner-core structural variability, along with numerical model simulations, are given in section 4 . A summary is provided in section 5 . 2. Synoptic history The synoptic history of Dolly is provided by Pasch and Kimberlain (2011) , and the track is given in Fig. 1 . Dolly’s origin can be traced to a tropical wave exiting Africa on 11 July 2008; however, it

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Bradley M. Muller, Christopher G. Herbster, and Frederick R. Mosher

1. Introduction On 12 September 2006, a pilot flying California coastal routes for SkyWest Airlines observed and photographed a cyclonic vortex in marine stratocumulus clouds just off the coast (Capt. P. Weiss 2006, personal communication). It was spotted off Grover Beach downwind of a coastal headland ( Fig. 1 ) southwest of San Luis Obispo, California, within a generally northwesterly marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) flow regime. Based on estimates from the Geostationary Operational

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