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Lisa-Ann Quandt, Julia H. Keller, Olivia Martius, and Sarah C. Jones

1. Introduction As atmospheric blocking may cause high-impact weather like heat waves and flooding (e.g., Matsueda 2009 ), there is a special interest in its predictability and the physical processes that limit forecast quality. Blocking is a large-scale flow pattern that decelerates arriving eddies, as well as the background flow, and forces them to follow a more meridional direction (e.g., Rex 1950 ; Arakawa 1952 ; Sumner 1954 ). Atmospheric blocking is persistent and self-sustaining (e

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Paraskevi Giannakaki and Olivia Martius

: Atmospheric predictability and Rossby wave packets . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 141 , 2793 – 2802 , doi: 10.1002/qj.2564 . Hoskins, B. , and Woollings T. , 2015 : Persistent extratropical regimes and climate extremes . Curr. Climate Change Rep. , 1 ( 3 ), 115 – 124 , doi: 10.1007/s40641-015-0020-8 . Jolliffe, I. T. , and Stephenson D. B. , 2012 : Forecast Verification: A Practitioner’s Guide in Atmospheric Science. John Wiley and Sons, 292 pp . Langland, R. H. , Shapiro M. A

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Lars Wiegand, Arwen Twitchett, Cornelia Schwierz, and Peter Knippertz

1. Introduction Rossby wave trains are the dominant dynamical feature of the upper troposphere in the midlatitudes (e.g., Hoskins and Ambrizzi 1993 ). They propagate eastward with the mean flow and their associated ridges and troughs are related to high and low pressure systems at the surface. In cases of nonlinear amplification, Rossby wave breaking (RWB) can occur. The regions with the highest occurrence of RWB are at the downstream end of the storm tracks ( Wernli and Sprenger 2007

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