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Aaron Johnson, Xuguang Wang, and Samuel Degelia

forecast was included in the real-time forecasts to test the hypothesis that such resolution is necessary, and perhaps adequate, to better resolve and more accurately predict bores and other wavelike features on the nocturnal stable layer. Atmospheric bores can occur when a density current impinges on a low-level temperature inversion that acts as a ducting layer for wave energy ( Rottman and Simpson 1989 ; Lutzak 2013 ). A bore is characterized by a steplike increase in the height of the inversion

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Sean Stelten and William A. Gallus Jr.

relatively narrow stream of air with a speed maximum occurring between 500 and 1000 m AGL and usually around 0600 UTC ( Bonner and Peagle 1970 ; Mitchell et al. 1995 ; Song et al. 2005 ), is a major factor in the initiation of MCSs, which often evolve from nocturnal CI ( Wallace 1975 ; Rochette and Moore 1996 ; Laing and Fritsch 1997 ). Great Plains forecasters have noted that elevated nocturnal CI often favors a few distinct and diverse modes (R. Roberts, National Center for Atmospheric Research

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Aaron Johnson and Xuguang Wang

goals of PECAN was to improve the prediction of nocturnal CI, nocturnal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), atmospheric bores, and nocturnal LLJs “with a particular focus on the next generation convective-permitting models and advanced assimilation techniques” ( Geerts et al. 2017 ). Much of the literature on model configurations for predicting convection in the Great Plains focuses primarily on daytime convection or discusses only the forecast lead time, with little or no mention of the

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