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Peter Vogel, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Andreas Schlueter, and Tilmann Gneiting

). Conventional observations such as surface stations and weather balloons are scarce at low latitudes, particularly over the vast tropical oceans. Consequently, the observing system is dominated by satellite data, which are heavily skewed toward measuring atmospheric mass variables rather than wind (e.g., Baker et al. 2014 ). However, data denial experiments for periods with a much enhanced radiosonde network during field campaigns over West Africa have shown a relatively small impact on model performance

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Peter Vogel, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Andreas Schlueter, and Tilmann Gneiting

current atmospheric state (e.g., tropical waves or influences from the extratropics) into meaningful impacts regarding the occurrence or amount of precipitation. This is robust for verification against station as well as satellite observations and cannot, therefore, be explained by propagation errors. For longer accumulation times and larger spatial aggregations, the large-scale circulation has a much stronger impact on convective activity, which should weaken the limitations through convective

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