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Qingfang Jiang, Ronald B. Smith, and James D. Doyle

1. Introduction While our understanding of mountain waves has advanced significantly over the past five decades, the effect of the atmospheric boundary layer (BL) has been largely ignored in most mountain-wave studies (e.g., Scorer 1949 ; Smith 1980 ), partially because the atmospheric BL is considered shallow relative to the depth of the troposphere, and also because it is difficult to include BL processes in analytical approaches. Over recent years, the influence of the atmospheric BL on

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Yixiong Lu, Tongwen Wu, Weihua Jie, Adam A. Scaife, Martin B. Andrews, and Jadwiga H. Richter

Center Atmospheric General Circulation Model (BCC-AGCM). The paper is organized as follows. We describe the model and experiments, analysis methods, and datasets in section 2 . Section 3 presents characteristics of the simulated QBO and compares them with observations. Based on a realistic QBO simulation, detailed analyses of resolved large-scale waves and parameterized GWs that force the QBO are shown in section 4 . A summary and discussions are presented in section 5 . 2. Model, experiments

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Carlos F. M. Raupp, Pedro L. Silva Dias, Esteban G. Tabak, and Paul Milewski

of small nonlinear terms in the theory of ocean waves; it has then been applied to a wide range of problems in physics. A rich and complete discussion on resonant triad interaction among dispersive waves can be found in Bretherton (1964) in his analysis of a simple wave equation “forced” by a quadratic term. With regard to the equatorial atmospheric waves, most of the theoretical studies on their nonlinear dynamics are based on the shallow-water equations with the equatorial β -plane

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Kyle MacRitchie and Paul E. Roundy

1. Introduction Convectively coupled atmospheric Kelvin waves (hereafter “Kelvin waves”) form a substantial part of the subscale anatomy of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Zhang 2005 ; Madden and Julian 1994 ). The MJO modulates the background state of the atmosphere through which Kelvin waves travel, thereby allowing it to influence their structures and propagation. Within the local active convective phase of the MJO (hereafter just “active MJO”), Kelvin waves tend to propagate more

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Cory Baggett, Sukyoung Lee, and Steven Feldstein

; Kump and Pollard 2008 ; Walsh et al. 2008 ). Apart from the above processes, an additional atmospheric pathway that can produce Arctic amplification has been proposed recently. The tropically excited Arctic warming (TEAM) mechanism hypothesizes that localized tropical convection near the Maritime Continent can amplify planetary-scale wave (PSW) activity, which leads to enhanced poleward sensible and latent heat transports into the Arctic. As a result of these transports, downward infrared

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Noboru Nakamura and Abraham Solomon

flow adjustments in the atmospheric general circulation Part I: Quasigeostrophic theory and analysis . J. Atmos. Sci. , 67 , 3967 – 3983 . Nakamura , N. , and D. Zhu , 2010 : Finite-amplitude wave activity and diffusive flux of potential vorticity in eddy–mean flow interaction . J. Atmos. Sci. , 67 , 2701 – 2716 . Pedlosky , J. , 1964 : The stability of currents in the atmosphere and the ocean: Part II . J. Atmos. Sci. , 21 , 342 – 353 . Pfeffer , R. L. , 1987 : Comparison of

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Maarten H. P. Ambaum

: Bimodality of the planetary-scale atmospheric wave amplitude index. J. Atmos. Sci. , 62 , 2528 – 2541 . Christiansen , B. , 2005b : The shortcomings of nonlinear principal component analysis in identifying circulation regimes. J. Climate , 18 , 4814 – 4823 . Corti , S. , F. Molteni , and T. N. Palmer , 1999 : Signature of recent climate change in frequencies of natural atmospheric circulation regimes. Nature , 398 , 799 – 802 . Ek , N. R. , and G. E. Swaters , 1994

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Masaru Yamamoto and Masaaki Takahashi

the lower-atmospheric angular momentum. In other words, the fully developed superrotation is maintained by the meridional circulation and the eddies. The horizontal and vertical angular momentum fluxes of thermally induced waves produce the cloud-top equatorial superrotation of more than 100 m s −1 near the height region where the solar heating is strongest, and planetary-scale waves with phase velocities of 0–50 m s −1 transport angular momentum toward the equator in the lower atmosphere (<40

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Jadwiga H. Richter, Fabrizio Sassi, and Rolando R. Garcia

or become unstable. This process occurs on very small scales and is not understood thoroughly [see the review by Fritts and Alexander (2003) and references therein]. The mean flow acceleration due to gravity waves increases with altitude due to the decreasing atmospheric density; as a result, in the mesosphere gravity waves are the dominant term in the global momentum budget. Gravity wave breaking also causes turbulence and mixes chemical constituents. Gravity wave parameterizations are very

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Joseph Allan Andersen and Zhiming Kuang

sharpened our view on wave-CISK. REFERENCES Arakawa , A. , and W. H. Schubert , 1974 : Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment. Part I. J. Atmos. Sci. , 31 , 674 – 701 . Arkin , P. A. , and P. E. Andanuy , 1989 : Estimating climatic-scale precipitation from space: A review. J. Climate , 2 , 1229 – 1238 . Bretherton , C. S. , 2003 : Wave-CISK. Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, J. R. Holton, J. A. Pyle, and J. Curry, Eds., Elsevier, 1019

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