Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for :

  • Waves, oceanic x
  • Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation-Climate Interaction x
  • All content x
Clear All
Christina S. McCluskey, Thomas C. J. Hill, Francesca Malfatti, Camille M. Sultana, Christopher Lee, Mitchell V. Santander, Charlotte M. Beall, Kathryn A. Moore, Gavin C. Cornwell, Douglas B. Collins, Kimberly A. Prather, Thilina Jayarathne, Elizabeth A. Stone, Farooq Azam, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, and Paul J. DeMott

, respectively, because of the different collection methods required to collect the different volumes of water needed for the MART versus the wave flume. The influence of the different collection depths is expected to be minor compared to the seasonal differences because water above the ocean thermocline (upper 150–200 m) is well mixed. Seawater for the MART and IMPACTS studies was collected on 5 January and 3 July 2014, respectively. The phytoplankton blooms were prompted by the addition of nutrients (f/2

Full access
Christina S. McCluskey, Thomas C. J. Hill, Camille M. Sultana, Olga Laskina, Jonathan Trueblood, Mitchell V. Santander, Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Kimberly A. Prather, Vicki Grassian, and Paul J. DeMott

types of sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles that contribute to heterogeneous ice nucleation in these clouds or the mechanisms that control emission rates of INPs from the oceans beneath them. Number concentrations of INPs and active site densities (number concentration of INPs normalized by total aerosol surface area) associated with SSA generated via wave breaking and bubble bursting at the ocean surface are lower compared to terrestrial sources such as mineral dust ( DeMott et al. 2016

Full access
Nicholas R. Nalli, William L. Smith, and Quanhua Liu

; thus, for LWIR calculations we use K. In calculating the sun-glint bidirectional reflectance term in Eq. (A1) , it is first noted that the ocean surface behaves as a quasi-specular reflector (which commonly manifests itself in the solar spectrum as sun glint). Because the radii of curvature of the smallest capillary waves is much larger than the wavelength of radiation, the surface reflection may calculated assuming the geometrical optics limit (e.g., Cox 1974 , 60–61), whereby individual wave

Full access
Wojciech W. Grabowski

others. However, in nature, convective clouds continuously interact with their surroundings through gravity waves and detrainment that modify their environment (e.g., Bretherton and Smolarkiewicz 1989 ). These interactions affect development of subsequent clouds. Thus, it is irrelevant what the first cloud does, but what matters is a response of an ensemble of clouds to realistic forcings averaged over many cloud realizations. (An exception to this argument might be when the first cloud causes a

Full access
Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

on low-level warm clouds, largely because they strongly reflect solar radiation back to space and cool the surface without impacting outgoing longwave radiation much. This is true especially for marine stratocumulus clouds, which cover roughly one-third of the global oceans ( Warren et al. 1988 ) and act as “air conditioners” to the climate system ( Stephens and Slingo 1992 ). Since warm clouds do not involve mixed-phase and ice phase regimes, they are less complicated microphysically, and thus

Full access
Baolin Jiang, Bo Huang, Wenshi Lin, and Suishan Xu

design a. Model description WRF-Chem, which is designed for both operational and research applications, is a fully compressible, Euler nonhydrostatic model with a hydrostatic option available. Arakawa C-grid staggering is employed for the horizontal grid and terrain-following dry hydrostatic pressure is applied for the vertical coordinate. A second- or third-order Runge–Kutta time integration scheme is applied in the model, while smaller time steps are used for acoustic and gravity wave modes. At

Full access