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Hailan Wang, Siegfried Schubert, Randal Koster, Yoo-Geun Ham, and Max Suarez

Plains (33°–50°N, 108°–85°W) during 2012. Values have a 10-day running mean applied. In summary, the timing of the impacts of the ocean basins on U.S. temperature anomalies is similar in the two years. We have already seen ( Fig. 7 ) that the cold season response to SST is linked to large-scale changes in the stationary waves, with the response to the Pacific associated with a PNA-like response and the response to the Atlantic resembling a NAO-like structure. During the summer the warming and drying

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Richard Seager, Lisa Goddard, Jennifer Nakamura, Naomi Henderson, and Dong Eun Lee

Niña in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Historically La Niña events have led to drier than normal conditions in the southwest United States, northern Mexico, the southern Plains, and southeast United States and wetter than normal conditions in the Pacific Northwest ( Ropelewski and Halpert 1986 ; Mason and Goddard 2001 ; Seager et al. 2005a ). This turned out to be a good forecast for much of the southern United States in winter 2010/11, which experienced drier than normal conditions except in

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Xing Yuan, Eric F. Wood, Nathaniel W. Chaney, Justin Sheffield, Jonghun Kam, Miaoling Liang, and Kaiyu Guan

drought events, and reducing the possibility of humanitarian crises ( Pozzi et al. 2013 ). The major source of seasonal forecast predictability comes from the ocean, and the strongest signal is the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). As the easterly trade winds weaken, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the eastern tropical Pacific increase. This alters the Walker circulation and the convection zone in the tropics, affecting the climate in midlatitudes and high latitudes through Rossby wave trains

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Eric F. Wood, Siegfried D. Schubert, Andrew W. Wood, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Kingtse C. Mo, Annarita Mariotti, and Roger S. Pulwarty

predict the SST, and are there particular regions (or even ocean basins) where the large-scale atmospheric response is particularly sensitive to SST anomalies? At these time scales the unpredictable signal is typically dominated during the cold season by well-known atmospheric teleconnections (e.g., the NAO, Arctic Oscillation, and Pacific–North American patterns), while during the warm season there is now mounting evidence that large-scale planetary (Rossby) waves (also largely driven by processes

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Kingtse C. Mo and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

Infiltration Capacity (VIC) 4.0.6 ( Liang et al. 1994 ), Noah 2.8 ( Koren et al. 1999 ; Ek et al. 2003 ), Sacramento/SNOW-17 (SAC) ( Burnash et al. 1973 ; Anderson 1973 ), and the Community Land Model 3.5 (CLM3.5; Oleson et al. 2007 ). Model descriptions and properties can be found in Wang et al. (2009) . 2) The NCEP system Precipitation forcing for the NCEP system was derived from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center (CPC) unified precipitation analysis

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Martha C. Anderson, Christopher Hain, Jason Otkin, Xiwu Zhan, Kingtse Mo, Mark Svoboda, Brian Wardlow, and Agustin Pimstein

ALEXI period of record is currently limited to the MODIS era (2000 and following), but can be extended back to the early 1980s using VI data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) series flown by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and geostationary data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B1 data rescue project ( Knapp 2008 ). Snow-covered regions have been masked using the 24-km resolution Daily Northern Hemisphere Snow and

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Bart Nijssen, Shraddhanand Shukla, Chiyu Lin, Huilin Gao, Tian Zhou, Ishottama, Justin Sheffield, Eric F. Wood, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

1. Introduction Smith and Katz (2013) report that during the period 1980–2011, droughts and heat waves ranked only behind tropical cyclones in the cost of damages associated with weather and climate disasters in the United States that individually caused more than a billion dollars worth of damage. This estimate did not include the 2012 drought, which covered much of the central United States. While the absolute magnitude of the economic losses is greatest in the developed world, the relative

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Shahrbanou Madadgar and Hamid Moradkhani

of drought events in the globe, specifically in the United States. The Drought Impact Reporter (DIR), launched by National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC), is a comprehensive database reporting damages caused by recent droughts within the United States. Reported by the North America Drought Monitor of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climate Data Center (NCDC; http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/temp-and-precip/drought/nadm/ ), droughts with an estimated damage of over 100

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