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Lixion A. Avila and Jamie Rhome

tropical cyclones during 2007; that mission was in Hurricane Henriette. Land-based radars from the Meteorological Service of Mexico and observations from both the Meteorological Service of Mexico and the Mexican Navy were extremely useful for monitoring tropical cyclones during 2007. a. Tropical Storm Alvin, 27–31 May Alvin developed from a poorly defined tropical wave that crossed Dakar, Senegal, on 9 May. The wave moved westward across the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea with very little

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John L. Beven II, Lixion A. Avila, James L. Franklin, Miles B. Lawrence, Richard J. Pasch, and Stacy R. Stewart

waves play a significant to dominant role in TC development in the eastern North Pacific Ocean. Avila et al. (2000) describe the methodology the NHC uses to track tropical waves from Africa across the tropical Atlantic, the Caribbean Sea, and Central America into the Pacific. Sixty-six tropical waves were tracked from the west coast of Africa across the tropical Atlantic and the Caribbean Sea from May to November 2003. Most of these waves reached the eastern North Pacific, where they played a role

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Richard J. Pasch, Eric S. Blake, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven, Daniel P. Brown, James L. Franklin, Richard D. Knabb, Michelle M. Mainelli, Jamie R. Rhome, and Stacy R. Stewart

during 2006: three in Hurricane John, two in Hurricane Lane, and two in Hurricane Paul. Land-based radars from the Meteorological Service of Mexico were also extremely useful for monitoring tropical cyclones during 2006. a. Tropical Storm Aletta, 27–30 May A tropical wave moved from Central America into the eastern North Pacific Ocean on 21 May, and moved very slowly westward for the next several days. On 23–24 May, the wave interacted with a large low-level cyclonic circulation near the Gulf of

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John L. Beven II and James L. Franklin

from the ship Belo Oriente, which reported 35-kt winds about 190 n mi north-northeast of the center at 1200 UTC 13 July. c. Tropical Storm Calvin: 25–27 July A tropical wave that emerged from the west coast of Africa on 9 July crossed Central America into the Pacific Ocean on 20 July. The wave moved into a convectively active ITCZ, with a midlevel circulation developing on 23 July. Additional development produced a tropical depression about 560 n mi southwest of Cabo San Lucas by 0600 UTC 25 July

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Lixion A. Avila and John L. Guiney

positioning the center of the storm and the rainbands. Heavy showers and gusty winds were observed primarily in the Gulf of California. Moisture from the storm reached the southwestern United States. Since Frank was a threat to Baja California, tropical storm watches and warnings were required for a portion of this area. g. Hurricane Georgette, 11–17 August Georgette’s origin can be traced back to a tropical wave that appeared in the far eastern tropical Pacific Ocean on 4 August. This wave was likely the

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Lixion A. Avila, Richard J. Pasch, John L. Beven II, James L. Franklin, Miles B. Lawrence, and Stacy R. Stewart

Storm Georgette: 26–30 August The tropical wave that spawned Georgette moved across the west coast of Africa on 15 August. The wave moved westward across the tropical Atlantic Ocean with little associated shower activity until it reached the Gulf of Tehuantepec in the northeastern Pacific Ocean on 24 August. By early on 25 August, deep convection increased and became better organized. A QuikSCAT overpass indicated that a weak surface low pressure area had formed along the wave axis and by 1200 UTC

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Miles B. Lawrence

-level westerlies extended to rather low latitudes over the eastern North Pacific Ocean through most of the month of May. The associated westerly vertical wind shear helped inhibit tropical cyclone formation in that basin during May. Near the end of the month, however, the westerlies lifted northward slightly over the easternmost part of the basin. It was there that a distinct circulation of low- to midlevel clouds developed on 30 May, possibly in association with a tropical wave that crossed the Atlantic Ocean

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Richard D. Knabb, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven, James L. Franklin, Richard J. Pasch, and Stacy R. Stewart

Hurricane Maria in the Atlantic basin. The southern portion of the wave continued westward for the next five days and emerged over the extreme eastern North Pacific Ocean on 4 September. A broad surface low pressure area developed along the wave axis by 7 September, and associated thunderstorm activity increased about 400 n mi south of Acapulco. The low moved west-northwestward at about 10 kt for the next few days, accompanied by little change in organization. Convective organization increased late on

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Lixion A. Avila, Richard J. Pasch, Jack L. Beven, James L. Franklin, Miles B. Lawrence, Stacy R. Stewart, and Jiann-Gwo Jiing

disturbance of Hurricane Adolph. Surface analyses showed a weak low along the wave axis over Panama and Costa Rica beginning late on 18 May. The low eventually moved into the eastern North Pacific Ocean on 22 May with broadly distributed and disorganized convection. It was not until about 1800 UTC 25 May that a concentration of deep convection developed just south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) satellite data suggested

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Edward N. Rappaport

wave’s “intrinsic” potential for development (e.g., its observed size, cloud and circulation structure, convective nature) when it crosses the west coast of Africa, and 2) the characteristics of the eastern Atlantic atmospheric and oceanic environment that it then encounters. While satellite signatures, surface pressure analyses, and circulation features derived from rawindsonde data provide some clues about tropical waves departing Africa, a reliable quantitative measure of point 1 above remains

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