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Daisuke Hotta and Hisashi Nakamura

in the storm-track formation, as suggested in the aforementioned recent studies. In addition, the response of the planetary wave model to each of the diabatic heating components is also used for assessing their relative importance in maintaining the mean surface westerlies. They are known to be important in midlatitudes for driving the ocean circulation, forcing heat and moisture releases from the ocean, and influencing the surface climatic conditions. Details of these experiments and their

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Young-Oh Kwon, Michael A. Alexander, Nicholas A. Bond, Claude Frankignoul, Hisashi Nakamura, Bo Qiu, and Lu Anne Thompson

1995 ). Westward-propagating Rossby waves driven by basin-scale wind stress curl ( ∇ × τ ) anomalies ( Frankignoul et al. 1997 ) can initiate changes in ocean circulation in WBCs that lead to meridional displacement of the front ( Nakamura and Kazmin 2003 ) and geostrophic advection changes ( Dong and Kelly 2004 ). In addition, atmospheric teleconnections from the tropics can influence the surface heat flux and Ekman transports in WBCs ( Alexander et al. 2002 ). These processes are schematically

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Mototaka Nakamura and Shozo Yamane

storm track is pseudo-eastward, since the potential vorticity gradient at 850 hPa is predominantly meridional and positive and MR z850 is almost entirely upward along the storm track. The near-surface climatological U along the storm track is generally positive and is, in part, attributed to this wave forcing. The climatological SST and F h fields clearly show the fundamentally different roles of the ocean in the storm-track region between the winter and summer. The atmosphere receives large

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James F. Booth, Lu Anne Thompson, Jérôme Patoux, Kathryn A. Kelly, and Suzanne Dickinson

region of largest instability, making it difficult to invoke the momentum-mixing mechanism. Although it is clear that the momentum-mixing mechanism explains the occurrence of strong winds in some instances, it does not appear to apply to all ocean basins. The signature of storm activity can also be evaluated via a storm-track analysis, using temporal filtering to isolate the time scales of baroclinic wave activity (i.e., the synoptic time scale). In this paper, we define baroclinic wave activity as

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Lu Anne Thompson and Young-Oh Kwon

the time it takes for a wind-forced oceanic first baroclinic Rossby wave to propagate from the central North Pacific to the western boundary ( Seager et al. 2001 ). Ocean–atmosphere coupled models consistently show decadal peaks in the spectrum of SST in the Kuroshio–Oyashio Extension (KOE), and this peak has been attributed to a coupled ocean–atmosphere mode of variability ( Latif and Barnett 1996 ; Pierce et al. 2001 ; Wu et al. 2005 ; Kwon and Deser 2007 ). Latif and Barnett (1996

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Takeaki Sampe, Hisashi Nakamura, Atsushi Goto, and Wataru Ohfuchi

influence the ocean by modulating the surface heat and momentum exchanges ( Inatsu et al. 2003 ) through the following processes. Westerly angular momentum transport through horizontal dispersion of baroclinic waves maintains the upper-level westerlies along midlatitude storm tracks, while acting to decelerate STJs ( Hartmann 2007 ) that are maintained by angular momentum transport by the Hadley circulation ( Held and Hou 1980 ). Poleward heat transport associated with baroclinic eddies acts to relax

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Bunmei Taguchi, Hisashi Nakamura, Masami Nonaka, and Shang-Ping Xie

migration of local SST fronts ( Xie et al. 2000 ; Seager et al. 2001 ; Nakamura and Kazmin 2003 ; Nonaka et al. 2006 , 2008 ) in association with incoming wind-forced oceanic Rossby waves ( Schneider and Miller 2001 ; Qiu 2003 ; Taguchi et al. 2007 ) and anomalous thermal advection by the Kuroshio and its extension (KE; Qiu 2000 ; Tomita et al. 2002 ; Vivier et al. 2002 ; Scott and Qiu 2003 ) and by the Oyashio and its subpolar extension (OE; Nonaka et al. 2008 ). Because they are caused by

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Kathryn A. Kelly, R. Justin Small, R. M. Samelson, Bo Qiu, Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Meghan F. Cronin

the vertical velocities may be related to the enhanced baroclinic development over the GS; in this case, the dominant effect may be on the storm track itself, rather than exciting quasi-linear planetary wave propagation. 3. Oceanography of the GS and KE systems To understand the complex air–sea interactions in the WBCs, knowledge of regional ocean dynamics and thermodynamics is necessary. The large contribution of oceanic heat advection in the WBC regions makes the air–sea interaction markedly

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Xujing Jia Davis, Lewis M. Rothstein, William K. Dewar, and Dimitris Menemenlis

surface wave distortion of the marine wind profile in low-level ocean storms wind measurements . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 25 , 2959 – 2971 . Latif , M. , and T. P. Barnett , 1994 : Causes of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America . Science , 266 , 634 – 637 . Luksch , U. , and H. von Storch , 1992 : Modeling the low-frequency sea surface temperature variability in the North Pacific . J. Climate , 5 , 893 – 906 . Luo , Y. , Q. Liu , and L. M

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Masami Nonaka, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi, Nobumasa Komori, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, and Koutarou Takaya

: Deep ocean inertia-gravity waves simulated in a high-resolution global coupled atmosphere–ocean GCM. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 35 , L04610 . doi:10.1029/2007GL032807 . Kushnir , Y. , W. A. Robinson , I. Blade , N. M. J. Hall , S. Peng , and R. Sutton , 2002 : Atmospheric GCM response to extratropical SST anomalies: Synthesis and evaluation. J. Climate , 15 , 2233 – 2256 . Latif , M. , and T. P. Barnett , 1994 : Causes of decadal climate variability over the North

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