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Ronald B. Smith, Alison D. Nugent, Christopher G. Kruse, David C. Fritts, James D. Doyle, Steven D. Eckermann, Michael J. Taylor, Andreas Dörnbrack, M. Uddstrom, William Cooper, Pavel Romashkin, Jorgen Jensen, and Stuart Beaton

conclude that it can be robustly estimated. It gives valuable information about how the wave is propagating horizontally through the atmosphere. Note that these error estimates do not include sampling errors. Even in simple mountain wave fields, fluxes are inhomogeneous ( Vosper and Mobbs 1998 ; Kruse and Smith 2015 ) and a single aircraft traverse is unlikely to give a spatially and temporally representative flux value. 3. Flux results a. Land versus sea The extensive over-ocean surveys in DEEPWAVE

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David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, P.-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reinecke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, Ruth S. Lieberman, Brian Laughman, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Steven F. Williams, Gonzalo Hernandez, Damian J. Murphy, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Iain M. Reid, and Jun Ma

= flight level, SI = South Island, CW = convective waves, FWs = frontal waves, SO = Southern Ocean. IOPs are shown in the context of the large-scale ECMWF horizontal winds from 0 to 80 km in Fig. 4 (top). The dominant feature is the polar night jet with a maximum wind often exceeding 100 m s −1 at ∼50–60 km that is presumably modulated in strength by PWs on time scales of ∼5–10 days. The poleward jet associated with frontal systems exhibits episodic maxima of ∼30–50 m s −1 at ∼8–12 km on similar

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Stephen D. Eckermann, James D. Doyle, P. Alex Reinecke, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Ronald B. Smith, David C. Fritts, and Andreas Dörnbrack

gravity wave climatologies, eventually leading to Christchurch, New Zealand, being selected as the operating base for a DEEPWAVE NGV deployment. We present a selection of the climatological AIRS-based research that informed this choice. Figs. 4a and 4b show terrain and regional landmarks in and around New Zealand and over the Southern Ocean. Plots below show σ T B j derived from 3 and 80 hPa AIRS radiances, averaged throughout June and July from 2003 to 2011. The 80 hPa σ T B j in Figs. 4e and 4

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Christopher G. Kruse and Ronald B. Smith

-generated gravity wave events within 6- and 2-km-resolution WRF simulations ( appendix A ), respectively, are presented in this section. a. Jet-generated gravity waves Gravity waves events are quite apparent and frequent in midstratospheric analyses of vertical velocity and temperature over the Southern Ocean south of New Zealand. This is a particularly stormy region, with frequent midlatitude cyclones and high-amplitude upper-tropospheric waves. Within the complex jet structures in the upper troposphere, flow

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Qingfang Jiang, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, and Bifford P. Williams

in the stratosphere was documented by several groups using observations from satellite-mounted sensors (e.g., Wu and Waters 1996 ; Eckermann and Preusse 1999 ; Jiang et al. 2002 ; Hendricks et al. 2014 ). Local maxima in stratospheric wave perturbation amplitudes, or “hot spots” ( Hoffmann et al. 2013 ), were found in the vicinity of major barriers such as the Southern Andes and Antarctic Peninsula, implying orographic origins. However, some maxima are located over the Southern Ocean far from

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Stephen D. Eckermann, Dave Broutman, Jun Ma, James D. Doyle, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Katrina Bossert, Bifford P. Williams, David C. Fritts, and Ronald B. Smith

). Fritts et al. (2016) review the planning, execution, and initial results of DEEPWAVE. One of the many scientific objectives of DEEPWAVE was to acquire gravity wave observations to test recent ideas that gravity waves generated by small island terrain in the Southern Ocean significantly influence the large-scale momentum budget of the middle atmosphere in austral winter. This idea first arose when Alexander et al. (2009) analyzed radiances acquired by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the

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Johnathan J. Metz, Dale R. Durran, and Peter N. Blossey

-00269.1 Fritts , D. C. , and Coauthors , 2018 : Large-amplitude mountain waves in the mesosphere accompanying weak cross-mountain flow during DEEPWAVE research flight RF22 . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 123 , 9992 – 10 022 , . 10.1029/2017JD028250 Gill , A. E. , 1982 : Atmosphere–Ocean Dynamics , Academic Press, 662 pp . Gisinger , S. , and Coauthors , 2017 : Atmospheric conditions during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE) . Mon. Wea. Rev

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Ronald B. Smith and Christopher G. Kruse

hydrostatic range, so it is not the ability of the waves to propagate that matters; it is their generation. In this paper, we focus on the terrain of the South Island of New Zealand. This terrain is high, rugged, highly anisotropic, and misaligned with the cardinal directions. It is surrounded by the featureless Tasmanian Sea and the Southern Ocean. It was the site of the 2014 DEEPWAVE project ( Bossert et al. 2015 ; Fritts et al. 2016 ; Gisinger et al. 2017 ). The DEEPWAVE project provides a unique set

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Tanja C. Portele, Andreas Dörnbrack, Johannes S. Wagner, Sonja Gisinger, Benedikt Ehard, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, and Markus Rapp

waves . J. Atmos. Sci. , 51 , 1915 – 1929 ,<1915:IOTHAO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1994)051<1915:IOTHAO>2.0.CO;2 Kim , Y.-J. , S. D. Eckermann , and H.-Y. Chun , 2003 : An overview of the past, present and future of gravity-wave drag parametrization for numerical climate and weather prediction models . Atmos.–Ocean , 41 , 65 – 98 , . 10.3137/ao.410105 Klemp , J. B. , J. Dudhia , and A. D. Hassiotis

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

nonorographic gravity waves over the Southern Ocean emphasize the role of moisture . J. Geophys. Res. , 120 , 1278 – 1299 , doi: 10.1002/2014JD022332 . Preusse , P. , and Coauthors , 2009 : New perspectives on gravity wave remote sensing by spaceborne infrared limb imaging . Atmos. Meas. Tech. , 2 , 299 – 311 , doi: 10.5194/amt-2-299-2009 . Rapp , M. , B. Strelnikov , A. Müllemann , F.-J. Lübken , and D. Fritts , 2004 : Turbulence measurements and implications for gravity wave

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