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Jesse Norris, Geraint Vaughan, and David M. Schultz

simulations, the left-hand ocean side of the domain has the same constant roughness length of 0.2 mm and a SST distribution equal to the initial temperature of the lowest model level, (the initial temperature when the baroclinic wave is initialized, as opposed to at the initialization time in this paper). The variability in the sensitivity simulations is all in the thermal and frictional characteristics of the right-hand land side of the domain, as summarized in Table 1 . The LANDFRIC1, LANDFRIC2, and

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Matthew R. Clark and Douglas J. Parker

the sea-breeze front during CaPE. Part II: Dual-Doppler and aircraft analysis . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 123 , 944 – 969 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123<0944:OOTSBF>2.0.CO;2 . Barnes , S. L. , 1994a : Applications of the Barnes objective analysis scheme. Part I: Effects of undersampling, wave position, and station randomness . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 11 , 1433 – 1448 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0426(1994)011<1433:AOTBOA>2.0.CO;2 . Barnes , S. L. , 1994b : Applications of the Barnes objective

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David M. Schultz, Bogdan Antonescu, and Alessandro Chiariello

1200 UTC 3 January 2003, a large-scale sub 980-mb (1 mb = 1 hPa) cyclone south of Greenland occupied the western half of the North Atlantic Ocean ( Fig. 3a ). A frontal wave was traveling around the larger cyclone on its south side. Petterssen (1936) frontogenesis at 850 mb was used to diagnose the regions of locations where the magnitude of the horizontal temperature gradient was increasing, indicating active fronts. The wave possessed three regions of Petterssen frontogenesis: a region along

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David M. Schultz and Joseph M. Sienkiewicz

-Alvarado et al. (2012) found that almost a third of the 100 most intense windstorms over the North Atlantic Ocean during winter months from December 1989 to February 2009 may have had precursor conditions that led to sting jets. Although landfalling cyclones in the Pacific Northwest may have similar surface wind maxima, Mass and Dotson (2010) found no evidence that these maxima were associated with sting jets. Besides sting jets, strong winds in cyclones may also occur in association with the cold

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Oscar Martínez-Alvarado, Laura H. Baker, Suzanne L. Gray, John Methven, and Robert S. Plant

. , 1973 : Mechanisms influencing distribution of precipitation within baroclinic disturbances . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 99 , 232 – 251 , doi: 10.1002/qj.49709942003 . Hoskins , B. J. , and F. P. Bretherton , 1972 : Atmospheric frontogenesis models: Mathematical formulation and solution . J. Atmos. Sci. , 29 , 11 – 37 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1972)029<0011:AFMMFA>2.0.CO;2 . Janssen , P. , 2004 : The Interaction of Ocean Waves and Wind . Cambridge University Press, 300 pp . Lock

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Sam Hardy, David M. Schultz, and Geraint Vaughan

) and that rainfall totals between April and July 2012 were lower over Scotland than across much of England and Wales, which had experienced its wettest summer in 100 years ( Parry et al. 2013 ). b. PV anomaly positioning The positioning of a PV anomaly relative to a downstream cyclonic disturbance (such as an extratropical cyclone, tropical cyclone, or diabatic Rossby wave) can modify the subsequent behavior of the disturbance when the PV anomaly approaches, as shown in previous studies on tropical

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G. Vaughan, J. Methven, D. Anderson, B. Antonescu, L. Baker, T. P. Baker, S. P. Ballard, K. N. Bower, P. R. A. Brown, J. Chagnon, T. W. Choularton, J. Chylik, P. J. Connolly, P. A. Cook, R. J. Cotton, J. Crosier, C. Dearden, J. R. Dorsey, T. H. A. Frame, M. W. Gallagher, M. Goodliff, S. L. Gray, B. J. Harvey, P. Knippertz, H. W. Lean, D. Li, G. Lloyd, O. Martínez–Alvarado, J. Nicol, J. Norris, E. Öström, J. Owen, D. J. Parker, R. S. Plant, I. A. Renfrew, N. M. Roberts, P. Rosenberg, A. C. Rudd, D. M. Schultz, J. P. Taylor, T. Trzeciak, R. Tubbs, A. K. Vance, P. J. van Leeuwen, A. Wellpott, and A. Woolley

weather systems. PV combines the vertical stability of the atmosphere with the horizontal shear and rotation of the wind field and is materially conserved in the absence of diabatic and frictional processes. It is a local measure of circulation about a point and its distribution is fundamental to our understanding of Rossby waves and the evolution of cyclones (e.g., Hoskins et al. 1985 ). Cyclone development typically arises through interaction between a Rossby wave on the tropopause and large

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Ben Harvey, John Methven, Chloe Eagle, and Humphrey Lean

fluxes in storm-force winds and estimated peak-to-trough ocean wave heights of 6–12 m. The circuit BCDEG was designed to be closed in a frame of reference moving with features on the front, but in practice the circuit was found to be best closed by a point between E and G, labeled F in Fig. 1 (see section 3b ). Subsequently, the aircraft turned to cross the front again before ascending through the cold-sector boundary layer (1635–1705 UTC) and finally crossing the front at high altitude to produce

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Ross N. Bannister

, and comprises the K eigenvectors. This is a rank K matrix (in practice ), which corresponds to , which is this variable’s CE (it also needs to be normalized so that the sum of squares of each row is ; see the next section). 2) The horizontal and vertical bases used in this work Columns of comprise 3D fields that are the products of horizontal plane waves and vertical modes (see below), and diagonal elements of comprise a variance spectrum. The variance spectrum is a known function of

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C. Dearden, G. Vaughan, T. Tsai, and J.-P. Chen

: 10.1175/1520-0450(1964)003<0027:OTIORL>2.0.CO;2 . Dearden , C. , P. J. Connolly , T. Choularton , P. R. Field , and A. J. Heymsfield , 2012 : Factors influencing ice formation and growth in simulations of a mixed-phase wave cloud . J. Adv. Model. Earth. Syst. , 4 , M10001 , doi: 10.1029/2012MS000163 . Dearden , C. , P. J. Connolly , G. Lloyd , J. Crosier , K. N. Bower , T. W. Choularton , and G. Vaughan , 2014 : Diabatic heating and cooling rates derived

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