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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

field programs; e.g., Zhang 2002 ; Donner and Phillips 2003 ) suggests further research as to its impact on other aspects of ocean–atmosphere coupled simulations. However, the opposing effects of the differing closures and triggers on the realism of the mean circulation and the tropical wave spectrum suggest fundamental difficulties remain in treating convection. Fig . 21. Normalized tropical symmetric OLR wavenumber–frequency power spectrum for (a) AM3, (b) AM3 with CAPE relaxation closure for

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John Austin, Larry W. Horowitz, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, R. John Wilson, and Hiram Levy II

1. Introduction Climate model simulations participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) in support of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report ( Solomon et al. 2007 ) were restricted in two important ways by the computer power then available. First, the models specified zonally symmetric stratospheric ozone. As a result, the model dynamics (in particular planetary waves) are unrelated to the ozone field

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