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Sybille Y. Schoger, Dmitri Moisseev, Annakaisa von Lerber, Susanne Crewell, and Kerstin Ebell

in section 4 . 2) Micro Rain Radar The MRR is a vertically pointing frequency modulated continuous wave (FM-CW) Doppler radar manufactured by METEK GmbH ( Klugmann et al. 1996 ). It operates at a frequency of f = 24 GHz (K band; wavelength λ = 12.38 mm). Relative to (pulsed) radars in the same frequency range, the MRR has a low power consumption of 25 W. If the installed dish heater is turned on, a consumption of 500 W is added. The heating system prevents snow accumulation on the parabolic

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Randy J. Chase, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and Greg M. McFarquhar

attenuation from snowfall at W band is nontrivial, up to 1 dB km −1 whereas at Ku and Ka band are estimated to be around 0.1 dB km −1 or less ( Kneifel et al. 2011 ), only the Ku- and Ka-band reflectivities are used. To ensure correct absolute calibration of the radars, the Ku-band radar is calibrated by considering surface echoes of a water body in nonprecipitating conditions (GCPEX: Lake Huron and Lake Ontario; OLYMPEX: Pacific Ocean; Tanelli et al. 2006 ). Then the Ka band is calibrated against the

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Xiang Ni, Chuntao Liu, and Edward Zipser

of MAXHT20 and MAXHT30 over tropical (20°S–20°N) (top) land and (bottom) ocean. With different wavelengths at Ku and Ka bands, the electromagnetic waves interact with particles differently. The combination of the two channels would help in the retrieval of microphysical parameters. Typically, based on the radar equation, there are three likely influences on DFR profiles: 1) the Mie scattering effect, 2) the path-integrated attenuation, and 3) multiple scattering. Based on the Mie scattering

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Toshio Iguchi, Nozomi Kawamoto, and Riko Oki

estimate the particle size more accurately than a single-frequency radar so that we can improve the estimates of rainfall rate and identify snow precipitation regions. In fact, by using the difference in the scattering and attenuation properties of liquid and solid water particles between Ku- and Ka-band electromagnetic (EM) waves, it is possible to estimate the mean diameter of precipitation particles once an appropriate particle size distribution (PSD) model is chosen. Since the mean particle size

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E. F. Stocker, F. Alquaied, S. Bilanow, Y. Ji, and L. Jones

improved precipitation detection and bias corrections (K. Kanemaru 2017, personal communication). The 17+-yr record of TRMM PR showed a time-dependent drift of approximately 0.2 dB in the surface cross section over ocean, which has also been mitigated in GPM V05 ( Takahashi and Iguchi 2004 ). Further details on the calibration changes for GPM V05 processing of PR are outside the scope of this work and will be detailed in another publication. This paper provides information about the work undertaken to

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Robert A. Houze Jr., Lynn A. McMurdie, Walter A. Petersen, Mathew R. Schwaller, William Baccus, Jessica D. Lundquist, Clifford F. Mass, Bart Nijssen, Steven A. Rutledge, David R. Hudak, Simone Tanelli, Gerald G. Mace, Michael R. Poellot, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Angela K. Rowe, Jennifer C. DeHart, Luke E. Madaus, Hannah C. Barnes, and V. Chandrasekar

mountain range with permanent snow cover. Figure 1 shows the terrain of the Olympic Mountain range, which occupies the Olympic Peninsula of the state of Washington. The peninsula has a north–south coastline on the Pacific Ocean and is separated from Canada’s Vancouver Island on its north side by the narrow Strait of Juan de Fuca. Fig . 1. Map of the region where the OLYMPEX campaign occurred, including the mountainous terrain of the Olympic Peninsula. The motivation for OLYMPEX was not only to better

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W.-K. Tao, T. Iguchi, and S. Lang

–liquid phases). LH and its vertical distribution not only have a strong influence on a variety of tropical circulations, including tropical waves and tropical cyclone intensity, but also on midlatitude cyclones and weather systems. Moreover, the processes associated with LH result in significant nonlinear changes in atmospheric radiation through the creation, dissipation, and modulation of clouds and precipitation. Although more recent efforts have been made to estimate the LH associated with weakly

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Sara Q. Zhang, T. Matsui, S. Cheung, M. Zupanski, and C. Peters-Lidard

processes. For example, at synoptic time scales, variability of the rainfall is observed linking to tropical wave dynamics ( Mounier et al. 2007 ) and the extratropical intrusion of dry air ( Roca et al. 2005 ). The dominant mode of synoptic variability of precipitation is correlated with African easterly waves (AEWs) through the dynamic relationship to organized convection systems ( Kiladis et al. 2006 ; Skinner and Diffenbaugh 2013 ). Satellite observations and numerical model simulations are

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Kenneth D. Leppert II and Daniel J. Cecil

. 1991 ). Specifically, the emissivity of liquid hydrometeors is greater than that of the ocean surface, so warmer brightness temperatures (BTs) are measured above liquid precipitation than above a precipitation-free ocean surface (e.g., Spencer et al. 1989 ; Adler et al. 1991 ; Wilheit et al. 1991 ; McGaughey et al. 1996 ). The emission signal from liquid precipitation depends on several factors including characteristics of the background, frequency, liquid mass, rain rate, and thickness of the

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