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Zhining Tao, Scott A. Braun, Jainn J. Shi, Mian Chin, Dongchul Kim, Toshihisa Matsui, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard

–cloud–radiation interactions . Atmos. Environ. , 125 , 48 – 60 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.10.083 . 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.10.083 Thorncroft , C. D. , and B. J. Hoskins , 1994 : An idealized study of African easterly waves. I: A linear view . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 120 , 953 – 982 , https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49712051809 . 10.1002/qj.49712051809 Twohy , C. H. , 2015 : Measurements of Saharan dust in convective clouds over the tropical eastern Atlantic Ocean . J. Atmos. Sci. , 72

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Alan Brammer, Chris D. Thorncroft, and Jason P. Dunion

. J. , and C. D. Thorncroft , 2012 : African easterly wave dynamics in a mesoscale numerical model: The upscale role of convection . J. Atmos. Sci. , 69 , 1267 – 1283 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-11-099.1 . 10.1175/JAS-D-11-099.1 Bracken , W. E. , and L. F. Bosart , 2000 : The role of synoptic-scale flow during tropical cyclogenesis over the North Atlantic Ocean . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 128 , 353 – 376 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<0353:TROSSF>2.0.CO;2 . 10

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Lucas Merckelbach, Anja Berger, Gerd Krahmann, Marcus Dengler, and Jeffrey R. Carpenter

, 402 pp., https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/4443.001.0001 . 10.7551/mitpress/4443.001.0001 Palmer , M. , G. Stephenson , M. Inall , C. Balfour , A. Düsterhus , and J. Green , 2015 : Turbulence and mixing by internal waves in the Celtic Sea determined from ocean glider microstructure measurements . J. Mar. Syst. , 144 , 57 – 69 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2014.11.005 . 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2014.11.005 Peterson , A. K. , and I. Fer , 2014 : Dissipation measurements

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E. P. Nowottnick, P. R. Colarco, S. A. Braun, D. O. Barahona, A. da Silva, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, and J. R. Spackman

://doi.org/10.1029/1998JD900009 . 10.1029/1998JD900009 Thorncroft , C. , and K. Hodges , 2001 : African easterly wave variability and its relationship to Atlantic tropical cyclone activity . J. Climate , 14 , 1166 – 1179 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<1166:AEWVAI>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<1166:AEWVAI>2.0.CO;2 Twohy , C. H. , 2015 : Measurements of Saharan dust in convective clouds over the tropical eastern Atlantic Ocean . J. Atmos. Sci. , 72 , 75 – 81 , https

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Erin B. Munsell, Jason A. Sippel, Scott A. Braun, Yonghui Weng, and Fuqing Zhang

this period in terms of both track and intensity. The examination of this stage of Nadine’s lifetime also benefits from extensive observations taken during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) mission, which are compared to the simulations in order to develop a better understanding of Nadine’s behavior. Nadine developed from a tropical wave that emerged from the African coast on 7 September ( Brown 2013 ). The disturbance was

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Scott A. Braun, Paul A. Newman, and Gerald M. Heymsfield

significant radio frequency interference (RFI) from other AV-6 systems, resulting in loss of data within some dropsonde profiles. The lowest levels were most frequently impacted. The RFI issues were resolved for the 2013 and 2014 campaigns during which the dropsonde data from the aircraft to the ocean surface were typically good. AVAPS also provided good data for the NOAA Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR; Neiman et al. 2014 ) program in 2011. The overstorm payload consisted of the

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Jonathan Zawislak, Haiyan Jiang, George R. Alvey III, Edward J. Zipser, Robert F. Rogers, Jun A. Zhang, and Stephanie N. Stevenson

Edouard that included flights with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D (P-3) and Gulfstream-IV (G-IV) aircraft, as a part of the NOAA Intensity Forecasting Experiment (IFEX; Rogers et al. 2006 , 2013a ), as well as with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) unmanned Global Hawk (GH) aircraft, as part of the Hurricane Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) field campaign ( Braun et al. 2016 ). The GH is a high-altitude, long-endurance unmanned aircraft that was

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Sergio F. Abarca, Michael T. Montgomery, Scott A. Braun, and Jason Dunion

Edouard’s secondary eyewall as captured jointly by in situ observations made during the 2014 phase of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) experiment ( Braun et al. 2016 ) and Intensity Forecasting Experiment (IFEX; Rogers et al. 2013 ) research flights by the Hurricane Research Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Section 2 details the data and methodologies applied in the analysis of this work

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Anthony C. Didlake Jr., Gerald M. Heymsfield, Paul D. Reasor, and Stephen R. Guimond

currently exists. Examples involve vortex Rossby wave–mean flow interaction ( Montgomery and Kallenbach 1997 ), boundary layer spinup due to unbalanced dynamics ( Huang et al. 2012 ; Abarca and Montgomery 2013 , 2014 ; Qiu and Tan 2013 ; Sun et al. 2013 ), and boundary layer spinup due to a feedback between linearized frictional convergence, convection, and radial vorticity ( Kepert 2013 ). Many hypotheses invoke axisymmetric processes that occur outside of the primary eyewall when enough convective

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Erin B. Munsell, Fuqing Zhang, Jason A. Sippel, Scott A. Braun, and Yonghui Weng

). These same observations, when not assimilated, can be used for model verification. The tropical wave that eventually became Edouard exited the African coast on 6 September ( Stewart 2014 ). A broad area of low pressure and disorganized convection traveled westward for ~4 days until convection began to increase near the surface center late on 10 September. Edouard was subsequently designated as a tropical depression the following day, and slow but steady strengthening led to Edouard becoming a

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