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Chinnawat Surussavadee and David H. Staelin

radiometric background provided by oceanic reflections of cosmic radio waves originally near 3 K; fourth, emission from colder nonscattering precipitating hydrometeor layers (e.g., warm rain) can often be seen against the warmer background of microwave-opaque air below. The stochastic link between hydrometeors aloft and those reaching the ground varies with climate and terrain. This relationship can be revealed by faithful cloud-resolving numerical weather prediction models such as the fifth

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Frank S. Marzano, Domenico Cimini, Tommaso Rossi, Daniele Mortari, Sabatino Di Michele, and Peter Bauer

1. Introduction The concept of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is basically founded on the constellation of spaceborne sensors able to provide microwave (MW) and millimeter-wave (MMW) passive observations of precipitating clouds ( Hou et al. 2008 ; Smith et al. 2007 ). The key role of the GPM mission program is based on the consideration that both natural and human-induced climate variations affect the global water cycle (e.g., Chahine 1992 ). Higher evaporation and

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Cristian Mitrescu, Tristan L’Ecuyer, John Haynes, Steven Miller, and Joseph Turk

gap in this data field is noted. The red line shows the rain rates equivalent to a uniform cloud layer as described by Haynes et al. (2009) , where only PIA information is used to infer a rain rate. Since this approach is only applicable over ocean surfaces, the comparison can only be performed for the first half of the data points (i.e., over ocean). Finally, the along- CloudSat track rain rates as retrieved using the AMSR-E passive microwave (PMW) sensor onboard Aqua are presented with an

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Rémy Roca, Philippe Chambon, Isabelle Jobard, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Marielle Gosset, and Jean Claude Bergès

late June and characterized by a northward jump of the ITCZ ( Sultan and Janicot 2003 ) showing a strong modification of the rain regimes and synoptic-scale variability ( Gu and Adler 2004 ). The day-to-day variability of rainfall alternates between active and inactive phases at the intraseasonal scale with modes at 10–25 days and around 40–50 days, respectively ( Sultan et al. 2003 ). At shorter synoptic time scales, variability of the rainfall is also observed and linked to tropical wave dynamics

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Mark S. Kulie and Ralf Bennartz

; Kim et al. 2008 ). The regions illustrated in Fig. 6 also display a relatively high frequency of snowfall occurrence ( Liu 2008a ), thus providing further motivation for selecting these specific locations. Since the CPR dataset utilized in this study only extends to 75°N–S, “Greenland” is assumed to be all land regions on Greenland located south of 75°N, while the “Greenland ocean” region includes all over-ocean observations near Greenland (bounded by 58°–75°N and 62°–18°W). “Antarctica

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J. J. Shi, W-K. Tao, T. Matsui, R. Cifelli, A. Hou, S. Lang, A. Tokay, N-Y. Wang, C. Peters-Lidard, G. Skofronick-Jackson, S. Rutledge, and W. Petersen

of one National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-provided satellite, U.S. satellite assets from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, and international satellites with passive microwave instruments. Two of the major objectives of the GPM mission are to measure cold-season precipitation in mid- and high latitudes over land through the use of GMI high-frequency radiometry and to further the understanding of precipitation

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Shelley L. Knuth, Gregory J. Tripoli, Jonathan E. Thom, and George A. Weidner

( Bintanja 2001 ). Compaction involves the loss in depth over time due to the densification of snow layers through wind or gravity effects. Of the four terms on the right-hand side of Eq. (1) , the largest is precipitation when considering the mass balance of the entire ice sheet, as loss from the other three terms to the ocean and atmosphere is comparatively negligible ( Bromwich 1988 ). When examining the effects of these terms on a more localized scale and focusing on depth rather than mass, other

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