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Vasily Lyulyukin, Rostislav Kouznetsov, and Margarita Kallistratova

1. Introduction Over the last years, an interest in theoretical and experimental studies of gravity–shear waves, such as Kelvin–Helmholtz billows (KHB), has increased because of their role in the generation of turbulence and vertical exchange of mass and heat in a stably stratified atmosphere. Ground-based remote sensing gives a visual two-dimensional picture of the wave motions in the fields of refractive index and/or wind velocity, providing valuable information on wave activity in the

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Valery M. Melnikov, Richard J. Doviak, Dusan S. Zrnić, and David J. Stensrud

mixing within a strong vertical gradient of potential refractive index. The height of maximal reflectivity obtained from a nearby National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) wind profiler ( Fig. 1b ) also is in accord with the height of maximum reflectivity observed with KOUN, providing further support for the hypothesis that shear-induced turbulent mixing produced the layer of larger . b. Convective mixing above a layer of Bragg scatter Another example of the potential use of

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Margarita A. Kallistratova, Rostislav D. Kouznetsov, Valerii F. Kramar, and Dmitrii D. Kuznetsov

-periodic patterns. In plots of the return intensity in time–height coordinates (sodar echograms), these patterns appear as braid shaped or inclined stripes of enhanced echo intensity. In some studies such patterns are associated with Kelvin–Helmholtz billows ( Gossard and Hooke 1975 ). The effect of such structures on variances of wind components in the LLJ has been studied previously, to our knowledge, for only two short episodes of the wave activity: one observed with a sodar ( Coulter 1990 ) and another with

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Jacob Berg, Jakob Mann, and Edward G. Patton

-Chen, T. , Xu M. , and Eberhard W. L. , 1992 : Estimations of atmospheric boundary layer fluxes and other turbulence parameters from Doppler lidar data . J. Geophys. Res. , 97 ( D17 ), 18 409 – 18 423 . Grachev, A. A. , Fairall C. W. , Hare J. E. , Edson J. B. , and Miller S. D. , 2003 : Wind stress vector over ocean waves . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 33 , 2408 – 2429 . Lothon, M. , Lenschow D. H. , and Mayor S. D. , 2009 : Doppler lidar measurements of vertical velocity

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Stuart Bradley

discussions. REFERENCES Antoniou, I. , Jørgensen H. E. , von Hünerbein S. , Bradley S. G. , Kindler D. , Warmbier G. , and de Noord M. , 2004 : The Profiler Intercomparison Experiment (PIE). Proc. European Wind Energy Conf. and Exhibition, London, United Kingdom, EWEA, CD-ROM . Behrens, P. , Bradley S. , and Wiens T. , 2010 : A multisodar approach to wind profiling . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 27 , 1165 – 1174 . Behrens, P. , O'Sullivan J. , Archer R. , and Bradley S

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A. B. White, M. L. Anderson, M. D. Dettinger, F. M. Ralph, A. Hinojosa, D. R. Cayan, R. K. Hartman, D. W. Reynolds, L. E. Johnson, T. L. Schneider, R. Cifelli, Z. Toth, S. I. Gutman, C. W. King, F. Gehrke, P. E. Johnston, C. Walls, D. Mann, D. J. Gottas, and T. Coleman

1. Introduction Since the late 1990s, scientists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)’s Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) and their partners have been studying the winter storms that impact the U.S. West Coast each year. Beginning in 2004, this work was organized under the umbrella of NOAA’s Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT-West; hmt.noaa.gov ; Ralph et al. 2005 ; Morss and Ralph 2007 ). This paper describes a California HMT-Legacy project that has three main

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David Schlipf, Po Wen Cheng, and Jakob Mann

points ( l zi = 0), the rotor effective wind speed is The resulting spectrum is d. Spatial averaging Because of the pulse length (for pulsed systems) or the optical focusing (for continuous wave systems) and the data processing, real lidar systems average the wind speeds along the laser beam according to a weighting function f L (see Lindelöw 2008 ). For pulsed systems it can be assumed that f L depends only on the distance a to the focus point. For continuous wave systems, there is an

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