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Yansen Wang, Cheryl L. Klipp, Dennis M. Garvey, David A. Ligon, Chatt C. Williamson, Sam S. Chang, Rob K. Newsom, and Ronald Calhoun

observed during 9 of the 10 intensive observation periods (IOPs; De Wekker et al. 2004 ). The LLJ and its associated wave motions have been observed in many other investigations in the Great Plains of the United States. Using a Doppler lidar in the Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study 1999 (CASES-99), Banta et al. (2002) , Newsom and Banta (2003) , and Blumen et al. (2001) recently showed that nocturnal LLJs were often at or below 100 m above ground level. As shown in the continuous

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Eric A. Hendricks, Steve R. Diehl, Donald A. Burrows, and Robert Keith

equation, the speed of sound is reduced to the maximum velocity in the model in order to accelerate the computation (this can be done because acoustic waves do not contribute to the solution). The turbulent fluxes from the RANS equations are parameterized by a gradient transfer process, and a k–ω turbulence model ( Wilcox 1998 ) is used to predict the eddy viscosity coefficient. This turbulence model was chosen because it has been demonstrated to perform better in transitional flows, flows with

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Donald A. Burrows, Eric A. Hendricks, Steve R. Diehl, and Robert Keith

specified as a function of height. The virtual temperature and the virtual potential temperature of the air are represented by T υ and θ υ , respectively, and the surface heat flux is represented by dQ s / dt . To allow a larger time step, c is set equal to a velocity slightly larger than the maximum velocity in the model domain. This allows sound waves to propagate out of the model domain and allows a larger time step to be used. Early in the development cycle, we performed tests with RUSTIC that

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M. A. Nelson, E. R. Pardyjak, M. J. Brown, and J. C. Klewicki

, Finnigan (1979) measured the transport velocity by analyzing motion pictures of the waving wheat and found that the transport velocity was 80% higher than M at the top of the canopy. However, in the absence of a more sophisticated method for measuring the transport velocity within PA, the local M has been used as a rough estimate of the transport velocity scale. Thus, a length scale D is estimated by D = 0.5 Mf   −1 π −1 . Using this approximation, the lower limit of the frequency band of

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