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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

could affect climate at higher latitudes by changing the position and strength of the Hadley and Walker circulations ( Zhao et al. 2001 ). A GCM simulation suggested that tropical deforestation causes a weakening of deep tropical convection, which triggers the northeastward propagation of a Rossby wave train and alters climates at higher latitudes ( Snyder 2010 ). A coupled ocean–atmosphere model simulation showed that Southeast Asian deforestation can also induce teleconnections between the tropics

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Soumaya Belmecheri, Flurin Babst, Amy R. Hudson, Julio Betancourt, and Valerie Trouet

al. 2002 ; Wang et al. 2014 ). The strength, frequency, and persistence of midlatitude extreme weather events are linked to midlatitude atmospheric circulation patterns and are projected to increase under future climate change ( Barriopedro et al. 2011 ; Reichstein et al. 2013 ; Zscheischler et al. 2015 ). There is strong evidence that amplified quasi-stationary planetary waves favor extreme weather events in the midlatitudes ( Coumou et al. 2015 ; Screen and Simmonds 2014 ). In particular, a

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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

diverse local and synoptic factors, especially at midlatitude coastal cities where the effects of the UHI on regional influences merge with large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. Several studies have documented and modeled the effects of the UHI in regional temperatures and mesoscale flow patterns ( Yoshikado 1992 , 1994 ; Kitada et al. 1998 ; Kusaka et al. 2000 ; Ohashi and Kida 2002 ; Lo et al. 2007 ; Shepherd et al. 2010 ; Dandou et al. 2009 ; Carter et al. 2012

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W. L. Ellenburg, R. T. McNider, J. F. Cruise, and John R. Christy

three combined land surface air temperature and sea surface temperature datasets (HadCRUT4, GISS, and NCDC Merged Land–Ocean Surface Temperature analysis). Various causes have been ascribed to the midcentury cooling trend including “global dimming” due to aerosols ( Wild et al. 2007 ; Yu et al. 2014 ), volcanic eruptions ( Meehl et al. 2004 ), and solar irradiance ( Crowley 2000 ; Meehl et al. 2004 ). Meehl et al. (2004) employed global climate models to show that an additive effect of all of

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