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Matthew E. Jeglum, Sebastian W. Hoch, Derek D. Jensen, Reneta Dimitrova, and Zachariah Silver

CAP strength and depth can occur because of synoptic and mesoscale influences ( Steinacker et al. 2007 ). Numerous mechanisms for CAP displacement have been advanced in the literature. The strong stratification observed in CAPs permits the development of wave motions such as internal gravity waves ( Lareau and Horel 2015b ) or solitary waves ( Cheung and Little 1990 ) that can produce temperature and wind variations at the surface. These wave motions can be induced by flow collisions ( Lin et al

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H. J. S. Fernando, E. R. Pardyjak, S. Di Sabatino, F. K. Chow, S. F. J. De Wekker, S. W. Hoch, J. Hacker, J. C. Pace, T. Pratt, Z. Pu, W. J. Steenburgh, C. D. Whiteman, Y. Wang, D. Zajic, B. Balsley, R. Dimitrova, G. D. Emmitt, C. W. Higgins, J. C. R. Hunt, J. C. Knievel, D. Lawrence, Y. Liu, D. F. Nadeau, E. Kit, B. W. Blomquist, P. Conry, R. S. Coppersmith, E. Creegan, M. Felton, A. Grachev, N. Gunawardena, C. Hang, C. M. Hocut, G. Huynh, M. E. Jeglum, D. Jensen, V. Kulandaivelu, M. Lehner, L. S. Leo, D. Liberzon, J. D. Massey, K. McEnerney, S. Pal, T. Price, M. Sghiatti, Z. Silver, M. Thompson, H. Zhang, and T. Zsedrovits

observational difficulties. A resurgence of research occurred in the midtwentieth century with the advent of aerological networks ( Bjerknes et al. 1934 ) as well as groundbreaking advances of mountain-wave and slope-flow studies ( Prandtl 1942 ; Queney 1948 ; Long 1953 ). Vivid applications in areas of urban air pollution ( Ellis et al. 2000 ; Fernando and Weil 2010 ), dispersion in cities ( Allwine et al. 2002 ), wind energy harvesting ( Banta et al. 2013 ), aviation ( Politovich et al. 2011 ), alpine

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Raquel Lorente-Plazas and Joshua P. Hacker

points. Second, the model combines small and large scales analogous to mesoscales and synoptic scales. The superposition of two scales, and realistic spatial correlations, provide a useful platform for experimentation with observations that sample multiple scales of motion. In Model III, the small scale (short waves, ), and large scale (long waves, ) are superposed in the variables . The model equation is where c is a coupling coefficient, and b reduces the amplitude and increases the

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