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Mozhgan Amiramjadi, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Mohammad Mirzaei, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

Northern Hemisphere for which the biases were mainly reduced by implementation of mountain drag schemes, the parameterizations for the convectively generated IGWs proved specifically important in the Southern Hemisphere ( Chun et al. 2001 ) which is mainly covered by oceans. In this regard, Bossuet et al. (1998) implemented a simple scheme which relates the gravity wave momentum fluxes to the precipitation flux as an index of convective activity in the model. Following Lindzen (1981) , they applied

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David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, P.-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reinecke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, Ruth S. Lieberman, Brian Laughman, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Steven F. Williams, Gonzalo Hernandez, Damian J. Murphy, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Iain M. Reid, and Jun Ma

= flight level, SI = South Island, CW = convective waves, FWs = frontal waves, SO = Southern Ocean. IOPs are shown in the context of the large-scale ECMWF horizontal winds from 0 to 80 km in Fig. 4 (top). The dominant feature is the polar night jet with a maximum wind often exceeding 100 m s −1 at ∼50–60 km that is presumably modulated in strength by PWs on time scales of ∼5–10 days. The poleward jet associated with frontal systems exhibits episodic maxima of ∼30–50 m s −1 at ∼8–12 km on similar

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Gergely Bölöni, Bruno Ribstein, Jewgenija Muraschko, Christine Sgoff, Junhong Wei, and Ulrich Achatz

1. Introduction The parameterization of gravity waves (GWs) is of significant importance in atmospheric global circulation models (GCM), in global numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, and in ocean models. In spite of the increasing available computational power and the corresponding increase of spatial resolution of GCMs and NWP models, for the time being, an important range of GW spatial scales remains unresolved both in climate simulations and in global NWP ( Alexander et al. 2010

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Jannik Wilhelm, T. R. Akylas, Gergely Bölöni, Junhong Wei, Bruno Ribstein, Rupert Klein, and Ulrich Achatz

. , 70 , 231 – 247 , . 10.1175/JAS-D-12-025.1 Bühler , O. , 2009 : Waves and Mean Flows. Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, 341 pp. 10.1017/CBO9780511605499 Bühler , O. , and M. McIntyre , 1998 : On non-dissipative wave-mean interactions in the atmosphere or oceans . J. Fluid Mech. , 354 , 301 – 343 , . 10.1017/S002211209700774X Bühler , O. , and M. McIntyre , 1999 : On

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Tanja C. Portele, Andreas Dörnbrack, Johannes S. Wagner, Sonja Gisinger, Benedikt Ehard, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, and Markus Rapp

waves . J. Atmos. Sci. , 51 , 1915 – 1929 ,<1915:IOTHAO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1994)051<1915:IOTHAO>2.0.CO;2 Kim , Y.-J. , S. D. Eckermann , and H.-Y. Chun , 2003 : An overview of the past, present and future of gravity-wave drag parametrization for numerical climate and weather prediction models . Atmos.–Ocean , 41 , 65 – 98 , . 10.3137/ao.410105 Klemp , J. B. , J. Dudhia , and A. D. Hassiotis

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Junhong Wei, Gergely Bölöni, and Ulrich Achatz

. Fluids , 3A , 1760 – 1765 , . 10.1063/1.857955 Gill , A. E. , 1982 : Atmosphere–Ocean Dynamics . 1st ed. Academic Press, 662 pp. Gong , J. , D. L. Wu , and S. D. Eckermann , 2012 : Gravity wave variances and propagation derived from AIRS radiances . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 12 , 1701 – 1720 , . 10.5194/acp-12-1701-2012 Griffiths , M. , and M. J. Reeder , 1996 : Stratospheric inertia-gravity waves generated

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

nonorographic gravity waves over the Southern Ocean emphasize the role of moisture . J. Geophys. Res. , 120 , 1278 – 1299 , doi: 10.1002/2014JD022332 . Preusse , P. , and Coauthors , 2009 : New perspectives on gravity wave remote sensing by spaceborne infrared limb imaging . Atmos. Meas. Tech. , 2 , 299 – 311 , doi: 10.5194/amt-2-299-2009 . Rapp , M. , B. Strelnikov , A. Müllemann , F.-J. Lübken , and D. Fritts , 2004 : Turbulence measurements and implications for gravity wave

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Sonja Gisinger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Vivien Matthias, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Benedikt Ehard, Lars Hoffmann, Bernd Kaifler, Christopher G. Kruse, and Markus Rapp

investigate the different sources of gravity waves under favorable atmospheric conditions for deep vertical propagation, a climatological local maximum in gravity wave (GW) activity (a so-called hotspot) was sought in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) during austral winter. Besides the southern Andes, the Antarctic Peninsula, Tasmania, and other small islands in the Southern Ocean, the South Island (SI) of New Zealand constitutes one of several hotspots of stratospheric gravity wave activity in the Southern

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Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, and Marion Maturilli

the infrared satellite image at this time ( Fig. 2 ). Slightly more than 6 km above this cirrus deck, CALIOP detected a nearly 8-km-deep layer of synoptic-scale polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) embedded in an extended cold layer with temperatures less than 191 K. Within this layer, vertically tilted and horizontally separated patterns of enhanced attenuated backscatter are collocated with cold stratospheric temperature values less than 185 K ( Fig. 1b ). They are reminiscent of mountain-wave

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Claudia Christine Stephan, Cornelia Strube, Daniel Klocke, Manfred Ern, Lars Hoffmann, Peter Preusse, and Hauke Schmidt

1. Introduction Atmospheric gravity waves (GWs) play a key role in defining the large-scale global circulation and thermal structure of the middle and upper atmosphere, and they are important drivers of global atmospheric variability on various time scales. They are the main driver of the mesospheric summer to winter pole-to-pole circulation ( Holton 1982 , 1983 ) and the reason for the cold summer mesopause ( Björn 1984 ). In the stratosphere, GWs affect the timing of the springtime

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