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Wanqiu Wang and Pingping Xie

analysis, this analysis is developed by merging in situ observations with satellite retrievals from NOAA-16 , NOAA-17 , TMI, AMSR, and GOES satellites. The MPM is calculated on a 0.25° × 0.25°latitude–longitude grid with a spatial background error correlation scale of 50 km and a time interval of 3 h, thus allowing oceanic eddies, tropical instability waves, local sharp spatial gradients, as well as the diurnal cycle to be reasonably resolved. Currently, the MPM analysis is calculated over the

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Paquita Zuidema, Chris Fairall, Leslie M. Hartten, Jeffrey E. Hare, and Daniel Wolfe

few kilometers at 60- and 110-m resolution, even in the absence of precipitation and below cloud base, by virtue of clear-air refractive index Bragg scattering. Details on motion stabilization and processing of the wind profiler data are given in Fairall et al. (1997) . Oceanic temperature and salinity profiles were gathered four times a day to 150-m depth by a conductivity–temperature–depth probe; this probe failed on 31 July. The ocean temperature was measured continuously at 5-cm depth. 3

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, Brian D. McNoldy, Peter J. Rogers, and Richard K. Taft

from an easterly wave that crossed central America ( Pasch 2005 ) and contributed to the first strong gulf surge on 13 July (to be discussed later). There is evidence to indicate that the tropical cyclone activity shown in Fig. 5 is modulated on the time scale of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 ). This association is revealed in Fig. 6 , which presents time–longitude plots of the equator–10°N-averaged 850- and 200-hPa winds over the Pacific Ocean. Outbreaks of

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Arthur V. Douglas and Phillip J. Englehart

focuses on development of a NAME historical climatology for selected transient synoptic features that affect the NAME region. The four features included in this investigation are inverted troughs (warm- and cold-core systems as detected at 50 kPa), cold-core cutoff lows, open troughs in the westerlies, and surface fronts. Bryson and Lowry (1955) first identified the importance of easterly waves on the monsoon of northern Mexico and the desert Southwest. The importance of easterly waves in tropical

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Wayne Higgins and David Gochis

parameterized for more realistic simulations and accurate predictions with coupled ocean–atmosphere–land (O–A–L) models. A fundamental first step toward improved prediction is the clear documentation of the major elements of the monsoon system and their variability within the context of the evolving OAL annual cycle. NAME employs a multiscale (tiered) approach with focused monitoring, and diagnostic and modeling activities in the core monsoon region, on the regional and continental scales ( Fig. 1 ). An

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Kingtse C. Mo, Eric Rogers, Wesley Ebisuzaki, R. Wayne Higgins, J. Woollen, and M. L. Carrera

day, and 0000 UTC usually had more data counts than 1200 UTC. The upper-air data included rawinsonde, pibal, dropwinsonde, and reconnaissance, and had good coverage at 0000 UTC ( Fig. 2a ). At 1800 UTC, most data came from the NAME special soundings ( Fig. 2b ). The surface observations from landmasses had very large data counts for both 0000 and 1800 UTC. In the nearby oceans, data included the surface marine ships, buoys, Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) platforms, and splash

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Timothy J. Lang, David A. Ahijevych, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Richard E. Carbone, Steven A. Rutledge, and Robert Cifelli

systems (including mesoscale convective systems, or MCSs) within the monsoon. In addition, the data are being used to study the interaction of precipitating systems with the variable surface properties in the region over the SMO, the GoC, and the intervening coastal plain—as well as the influence of transient meteorological events such as tropical easterly waves (e.g., Fuller and Stensrud 2000 ) and gulf surges (e.g., Hales 1972 ) on precipitation in the region. In this paper we will report initial

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Mekonnen Gebremichael, Enrique R. Vivoni, Christopher J. Watts, and Julio C. Rodríguez

conclusions. 2. Regional characteristics The North American monsoon region is bounded to the west by the Pacific Ocean, including the Gulf of California, and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico and by the central plains of the United States ( Fig. 1 ). The interior of the region is characterized by complex topography. Noteworthy features are the north–south-aligned mountain ranges through Nevada, southwestern Arizona, and northwestern Sonora; the Mexican plateau that is defined by the Sierra Madre

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