Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for :

  • Waves, oceanic x
  • Ontario Winter Lake-effect Systems (OWLeS) x
  • All content x
Clear All
Dan Welsh, Bart Geerts, Xiaoqin Jing, Philip T. Bergmaier, Justin R. Minder, W. James Steenburgh, and Leah S. Campbell

) site is on the eastern lakeshore, while the upper plateau (UP) site is ~40 km inland and 470 m higher in elevation ( Table 1 ). The MRRs are frequency-modulated continuous wave Doppler radars, with a transmit frequency of 24 GHz (1.24-cm wavelength, K band) and a beamwidth of 2° ( Klugmann et al. 1996 ). The range resolution of the MRRs is 200 m in OWLeS. Reflectivity calibration and data processing of the MRR array in OWLeS is discussed by Minder et al. (2015) and Maahn and Kollias (2012) . Fig

Full access
Jake P. Mulholland, Jeffrey Frame, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Scott M. Steiger, Karen A. Kosiba, and Joshua Wurman

-effect snowfall. The 0000 UTC 7 January 2014 RAP model 500-hPa analysis reveals a short-wave trough west of Lake Ontario (denoted by the blue × in Fig. 3 ), which traversed the lake between 0400 and 0800 UTC. Quasigeostrophic ascent due to differential cyclonic vorticity advection ahead of this trough overspread the lake, allowing the capping inversion atop the Arctic air mass to rise. Soundings launched at 0513 and 0816 UTC from Henderson Harbor, New York (green star in Fig. 3 ), depict cooling below 500

Full access
David A. R. Kristovich, Richard D. Clark, Jeffrey Frame, Bart Geerts, Kevin R. Knupp, Karen A. Kosiba, Neil F. Laird, Nicholas D. Metz, Justin R. Minder, Todd D. Sikora, W. James Steenburgh, Scott M. Steiger, Joshua Wurman, and George S. Young

-effect snowstorm over and downwind of Lake Ontario. The event began as multiple bands streaming off the eastern end of Lake Ontario that consolidated into a single LLAP band extending from central into northeastern Lake Ontario and downwind land areas as a vigorous short-wave trough traversed over Lake Ontario. A sharp reflectivity gradient with a line of misovortices (small-scale vortices with sizes on the order of 0.1–1 km) was evident along the northern edge of this band. The Earth Networks Total Lightning

Full access
Leah S. Campbell, W. James Steenburgh, Peter G. Veals, Theodore W. Letcher, and Justin R. Minder

1. Introduction The apparent orographic enhancement of lake-, sea-, and ocean-effect (hereafter referred to collectively as “lake effect”) precipitation occurs downstream of bodies of water around the world including the Laurentian Great Lakes, the Great Salt Lake, and the Sea of Japan (e.g., Magono et al. 1966 ; Muller 1966 ; Hjelmfelt 1992 ; Niziol et al. 1995 ; Steenburgh et al. 2000 ; Eito et al. 2005 ; Yamada et al. 2010 ; Alcott and Steenburgh 2013 ; Yeager et al. 2013 ; Veals

Full access
Peter G. Veals, W. James Steenburgh, and Leah S. Campbell

1. Introduction The frequent inland and orographic enhancement of lake-, sea-, and ocean-effect (hereinafter lake effect) precipitation results in climatological precipitation maxima over downstream hills, mountains, and upland regions. As summarized by Niziol et al. (1995 , p. 62) for the Laurentian Great Lakes, “the greatest snowfall occurs where the prevailing winds blow [along] the longest fetch of the lake, particularly where orographic features enhance precipitation processes.” Veals

Full access
Justin R. Minder, Theodore W. Letcher, Leah S. Campbell, Peter G. Veals, and W. James Steenburgh

. Micro Rain Radars At each transect site, a vertically pointing Micro Rain Radar 2 (MRR; manufactured by Metek) was deployed. The MRR is a frequency-modulated continuous-wave Doppler radar with a transmit frequency of 24 GHz (wavelength of 1.24 cm; K-band) and a beamwidth of 2°. Each MRR measured spectral reflectivity at 32 evenly spaced range gates, with a range resolution of 200 m. The standard processing software provided by Metek is designed for measurement of rain (e.g., Klugmann et al. 1996

Full access
W. James Steenburgh and Leah S. Campbell

1. Introduction Accurate prediction of the timing, location, and intensity of lake-effect snowfall is paramount for forecasters in lake-, sea-, and ocean-effect (hereafter simply lake effect) regions. Intense, often highly localized lake-effect snowfall can produce rapid and extreme accumulations, adversely impacting transportation, commerce, and property ( Norton and Bolsenga 1993 ; Schmidlin 1993 ; Kunkel et al. 2002 ). Especially strong lake-effect systems (i.e., complexes of lake

Full access
Philip T. Bergmaier, Bart Geerts, Leah S. Campbell, and W. James Steenburgh

– 73 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-89-1-57 . 10.1175/BAMS-89-1-57 French , J. R. , S. J. Haimov , L. D. Oolman , V. Grubišić , S. Serafin , and L. Strauss , 2015 : Wave-induced boundary layer separation in the lee of the Medicine Bow Mountains. Part I: Observations . J. Atmos. Sci. , 72 , 4845 – 4863 , doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-14-0376.1 . 10.1175/JAS-D-14-0376.1 Geerts , B. , R. Damiani , and S. Haimov , 2006 : Finescale vertical structure of a cold front as revealed by an airborne

Full access
Daniel T. Eipper, George S. Young, Steven J. Greybush, Seth Saslo, Todd D. Sikora, and Richard D. Clark

(primary and return flows) and so minimize the influence of the MSC on the synoptic signal. It was also crucial that both dimensions were small enough to not produce blurring of the synoptic signal. Accordingly, the rectangle dimensions were also chosen as a conservative size for adequately resolving the lake-scale environment created by O (2000) km synoptic-scale waves ( Orlanski 1975 ), while simultaneously averaging out smaller scales. NARR variables used to characterize the synoptic environment

Full access
Philip T. Bergmaier and Bart Geerts

fixed multiantenna airborne radar . IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 44 , 3475 – 3489 , doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2006.881745 . Damiani , R. , and Coauthors , 2008 : The Cumulus, Photogrammetric, In Situ, and Doppler Observations Experiment of 2006 . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 89 , 57 – 73 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-89-1-57 . French , J. R. , S. J. Haimov , L. D. Oolman , V. Grubišić , S. Serafin , and L. Strauss , 2015 : Wave-induced boundary layer separation in the lee of the

Full access