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Stephen D. Griffiths and W. Richard Peltier

, but to what degree is not well known. We thus solely examine the effects due to sea level drop and changes in coastal geometry, which are well constrained, and that are likely to be responsible for the largest changes in the global tides. c. Internal tide drag As the tide flows over topography, internal waves of tidal frequency are generated wherever the ocean is density stratified. Density perturbations associated with the internal tide create a pressure perturbation p IT at the ocean floor z

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Guido Vettoretti, Marc d’Orgeville, William R. Peltier, and Marek Stastna

oceanic bridge” could also be involved in teleconnecting the Atlantic and the tropical Pacific Oceans through the propagation of coastal Kelvin waves. A recent intercomparison study ( Timmermann et al. 2007 ) of the impact of freshwater forcing of the North Atlantic on ENSO variability in five different coupled models found a substantial weakening of the annual cycle in the majority of the simulations and a subsequent increase in ENSO variability. The study demonstrated a clear connection between

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J. Paul Spence, Michael Eby, and Andrew J. Weaver

forcing, while excluding both the attributes and complications arising from flows through regions of complex bathymetry. The horizontal resolution of the land, atmosphere, and sea ice components are also increased in the same manner as the bathymetry. All experiments use the same values for vertical ocean mixing coefficients. The thermocline time scale required for adjustment to the perturbation induced upon switching resolution should be comparable to that for a first-mode Rossby wave to cross the

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Garry K. C. Clarke, Andrew B. G. Bush, and John W. M. Bush

are poorly reproduced (e.g., Meehl et al. 2001 ; Bush 2007 ). The vertical mixing scheme used here dramatically improves the model’s ability to simulate ENSO, both in terms of frequency and magnitude ( Bush 2007 ); additionally, an internal wave mixing scheme has also been incorporated to account for deep ocean mixing (e.g., Jayne and St. Laurent 2001 ; Simmons et al. 2004 ). To introduce the effect of elevated freshwater discharge through the St. Lawrence River system, prior to the lake

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Marc d’Orgeville and W. Richard Peltier

McWilliams 1998 ). In both scenarios, the time scale of the observed variability is thought to derive from the propagation of baroclinic Rossby waves across the basin that are triggered by the geostrophic adjustment to the surface forcing and influenced by mean oceanic currents. However, although such geostrophic adjustment has been invoked, numerical studies on the PDO have focused exclusively on the temperature variability, probably because of the way in which the PDO is characterized in the

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Michael S. Pritchard, Andrew B. G. Bush, and Shawn J. Marshall

in the ocean (e.g., Goosse and Renssen 2004 ), in the coupled atmosphere–ocean system (e.g., An and Wang 2005 ; van der Avoird et al. 2002 ; Schneider and Comuelle 2005 ; Newman et al. 2003 ), and in solid earth systems (e.g., Berger and von Rad 2005 ). It has become apparent from such studies that the influence of higher frequency processes on low-frequency climate variability is often not well represented stochastically. Rather, the well-defined spatial and temporal patterns of higher

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