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Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Nagio Hirota

. , 31 , L10101 . doi:10.1029/2004GL019601 . Kubar , T. L. , and D. L. Hartmann , 2008 : Vertical structure of tropical oceanic convective clouds and its relation to precipitation. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 35 , L03804 . doi:10.1029/2007GL032811 . Mapes , B. E. , 2000 : Convective inhibition, subgrid-scale triggering energy, and stratiform instability in a toy tropical wave model. J. Atmos. Sci. , 57 , 1515 – 1535 . Miyasaka , T. , and H. Nakamura , 2005 : Structure and

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Yasu-Masa Kodama, Masaki Katsumata, Shuichi Mori, Sinsuke Satoh, Yuki Hirose, and Hiroaki Ueda

) proposed trimodal characteristics of convection over tropical oceans, with shallow cumulus below trade inversions, congestus clouds with tops near the 0°C level, and cumulonimbus with tops near the tropopause. A stable layer near the 0°C level, maintained by the LH of melting snow ( Johnson et al. 1996 ), allows for the formation of congestus, which provides strong rainfall. In the subtropical oceans, congestus along with shallow cumulus mix the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere and

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Xianan Jiang, Duane E. Waliser, William S. Olson, Wei-Kuo Tao, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Jui-Lin Li, Baijun Tian, Yuk L. Yung, Adrian M. Tompkins, Stephen E. Lang, and Mircea Grecu

2000 ; Higgins and Shi 2001 ). The influences of the MJO have also been identified over the extratropics (e.g., Weickmann 1983 ; Liebmann and Hartmann 1984 ). Additionally, the westerly wind burst and oceanic Kelvin wave activity associated with the MJO are considered to be a possible triggering mechanism for El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO; e.g., Moore and Kleeman 1999 ; McPhaden 1999 ; Kessler and Kleeman 2000 ). Modulation of the MJO on global biological and chemical components have

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Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Xiping Zeng, Shoichi Shige, and Yukari Takayabu

. Smith , 2007 : The fourth TRMM latent heating workshop. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 88 , 1255 – 1259 . Thompson Jr. , R. M. , S. W. Payne , E. E. Recker , and R. J. Reed , 1979 : Structure and properties of synoptic-scale wave disturbances in the intertropical convergence zone of the eastern Atlantic. J. Atmos. Sci. , 36 , 53 – 72 . Wang , Y. , W-K. Tao , and J. Simpson , 1996 : The impact of ocean surface fluxes on a TOGA COARE convective system. Mon. Wea. Rev

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Andrew J. Newman

has remained elusive. Over the open ocean, an early-morning maximum of precipitation has generally been observed. This behavior has been attributed to a variety of processes acting singly or in combination: horizontal gradients in radiative cooling between cloud systems and their environment ( Gray and Jacobson 1977 ), daytime stabilization of the upper troposphere by shortwave heating and destabilization at night by longwave cooling ( Kraus 1963 ; Randall et al. 1991 ), and the life cycle

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K-M. Lau and H-T. Wu

in the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Climate , 14 , 780 – 793 . Khouider , B. , and A. J. Majda , 2007 : A simple multicloud parameterization for convectively coupled tropical waves. Part II: Nonlinear simulations. J. Atmos. Sci. , 64 , 2332 – 2354 . Kummerow , C. , W. Barnes , T. Kozu , J. Shiue , and J. Simpson , 1998 : The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) sensor package. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 15 , 809 – 817 . Lau , K-M. , and P. H. Chan

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T. N. Krishnamurti, Arindam Chakraborty, and A. K. Mishra

). Convection plays a major role in tropical intraseasonal variability and quasi-stationary circulation. Errors in the vertical placement of heating and the magnitudes of heating do have implications in the modeling of convectively coupled wave propagation such as ITCZ, MJO, and moist Kelvin waves. (A list of acronyms is provided in Table 1 .) Climate models have difficulty in the simulation of MJO, and large sensitivity of such simulations to the vertical heating distributions has been noted by several

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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer and Greg McGarragh

the HERB algorithm are described in section 2 , including its extension to cover both land and ocean surfaces, the introduction of a time-resolved aerosol transport model, and superior cloud detection and retrieval algorithms. HERB products are evaluated in section 3 in the context of TOA flux measurements from the CERES and ground-based flux observations from a network of surface sites throughout the TRMM region. The 10-yr average climatologies of radiative fluxes and atmospheric properties

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Manuel D. Zuluaga, Carlos D. Hoyos, and Peter J. Webster

tropical hydrological cycle and tropical sea surface temperatures. J. Climate , 17 , 2213 – 2224 . Sui , C. H. , and K. M. Lau , 1989 : Origin of low-frequency (intraseasonal) oscillations in the tropical atmosphere. Part II: Structure and propagation of mobile wave-CISK modes and their modification by lower boundary forcings. J. Atmos. Sci. , 46 , 37 – 56 . Tao , W. K. , and J. Simpson , 1993 : The Goddard cumulus ensemble model. Part I: Model description. Terr. Atmos. Ocean Sci

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Shoichi Shige, Yukari N. Takayabu, Satoshi Kida, Wei-Kuo Tao, Xiping Zeng, Chie Yokoyama, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

in the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE; Webster and Lukas 1992 ). For convective and shallow stratiform regions, the LUT is based on the PTH. Considering the sensitivity of the PR, we used a threshold of 0.3 mm h −1 to determine the PTH. Properties (i.e., shape and magnitude) of the convective and shallow stratiform heating profiles show near-monotonic change with the PTH, suggesting that the distribution of latent heating is a

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