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  • Waves, oceanic x
  • Understanding Diurnal Variability of Precipitation through Observations and Models (UDVPOM) x
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R. Cifelli, S. W. Nesbitt, S. A. Rutledge, W. A. Petersen, and S. Yuter

appear to have diurnal signals correlated with land-based convection, coupled through gravity wave currents and/or land–sea breeze interactions. Mapes et al. (2003) used a simple numerical model to show how diurnal heating over elevated terrain in the Panama Bight region could excite gravity waves and lead to the subsequent onset of precipitation over the adjacent ocean region. These previous works lead us to the hypothesis that the proximity to land of an ocean location is an important driver in

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Song Yang and Eric A. Smith

sources. The large amplitude of the rainfall over the tropical easten Pacific Ocean and across the northwest South American coastal zone is also associated with storm-generated convection. The local maxima of rainfall over the tropical eastern Atlantic Ocean and over Africa are likely due to convection produced within tropical easterly waves. Also, there is an obvious intensification of the ITCZ rainfall during summer relative to the ITCZ intensity during spring. The autumn rainfall distribution

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Song Yang, Kwo-Sen Kuo, and Eric A. Smith

various possible explanations for the well-established “late-evening” (LE)–“early-morning” (EM) oceanic surface precipitation maximum, while the diurnally regulated surface “solar radiative heating” (SRH) mechanism, which can manifest itself in either the form of a “static destabilization” (SD) mechanism or a “differential heating” (DH) mechanism, are the foremost explanations for the often-observed “mid- to late-afternoon” (MLA) continental surface precipitation maximum (e.g., Ramage 1971 ; Pielke

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Alex C. Ruane and John O. Roads

model’s atmosphere is forced by weekly mean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) that are linearly interpolated into mean daily values, resulting in diurnally constant SSTs. This assumption stems from the fact that the open-ocean surface’s large heat capacity drastically diminishes the daily range of surface temperature compared to land. Diurnally constant SSTs therefore have only a small impact on the diurnal magnitude of turbulent energy fluxes, but the phases are strongly affected ( RR07a ). b. Water

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Arindam Chakraborty and T. N. Krishnamurti

the diurnal time scale. Both wind and precipitation (TRMM) datasets were used to confirm the presence of this diurnal swing of convection and the related divergent wind. This day–night swing of the divergent gyre has a lateral scale of several thousand kilometers and appears to be a prominent scale of the Asian summer monsoon. The ascent of warmer air in the daytime over the continent and descent over the surrounding oceans (with a reverse scenario occupying the nighttime) raises the possibility

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R. E. Carbone and J. D. Tuttle

acts as an elevated heat source. They showed that convection scaled upward from simple cumulonimbus over the mountains to meso- β - and meso- α -scale systems over the plains, propagating eastward for hours. Gravity wave modes constrained by background slope flow circulations were shown to be central to the underlying dynamics. More recently, various global and regional studies (e.g., Davis et al. 2003 ; Wang et al. 2004 , 2005 ; Ahijevych et al. 2004 ; Tuttle and Davis 2006 ; Parker and

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