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Ching-Shu Hung and Chung-Hsiung Sui

) emphasized the role of wave-induced boundary layer moisture convergence in anomalous easterlies. With respect to growth and maintenance, Sobel et al. (2014) suggest that radiation and surface turbulent fluxes are the key processes, whereas Zhao et al. (2013) point out that zonal advection by the downstream suppressed convection contributes to the initiation over western Indian Ocean. The eastward propagation mechanisms of the MJO from Indian Ocean to Maritime Continent have also been explored, with

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Marvin Xiang Ce Seow, Yushi Morioka, and Tomoki Tozuka

Pacific force easterly anomalies over the central equatorial Pacific as a Kelvin wave response and a pair of cyclonic wind anomalies over the SCS and northwest Australia as a Rossby wave response. On the other hand, diabatic cooling anomalies in the western and central equatorial Indian Ocean induce an atmospheric Kelvin wave and equatorial ridge anomalies in the form of westerly wind anomalies over the central and eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. As explained by Xie et al. (2009) , the equatorial

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Ya Yang, Xiang Li, Jing Wang, and Dongliang Yuan

1000-m-depth velocity in the equatorial Pacific Ocean are associated with the downward-propagating annual Rossby waves. Due to lack of observations, studies of the off-equatorial subsurface zonal currents above the Argo parking depth of 1000 m have been lacking. Using a linear continuously stratified ocean circulation model, Kessler and McCreary (1993) demonstrated that westward and downward propagation of annual Rossby waves are forced by annual zonal winds in the equatorial Pacific. Marin et

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Lei Zhou, Ruomei Ruan, and Raghu Murtugudde


Madden-Julian Oscillations (MJOs) are a major component of tropical intraseasonal variabilities. There are two paths for MJOs across the Maritime Continent; one is a detoured route into the Southern Hemisphere and the other one is around the equator across the Maritime Continent. Here, it is shown that the detoured and non-detoured MJOs have significantly different impacts on the South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ). The detoured MJOs trigger strong cross-equatorial meridional winds from the Northern Hemisphere into the Southern Hemisphere. The associated meridional moisture and energy transports due to the background states carried by the intraseasonal meridional winds are favorable for reinforcing the SPCZ. In contrast, the influences of non-detoured MJOs on either hemisphere or the meridional transports across the equator are much weaker. The detoured MJOs can extend their impacts to the surrounding regions by shedding Rossby waves. Due to different background vorticity during detoured MJOs in boreal winter, more ray paths of Rossby waves traverse the Maritime Continent connecting the southern Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean, but far fewer Rossby wave paths traverse Australia. Further studies on such processes are expected to contribute to a better understanding of extreme climate and natural disasters on the rim of the southern Pacific and Indian Oceans.

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Beata Latos, Thierry Lefort, Maria K. Flatau, Piotr J. Flatau, Donaldi S. Permana, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Jaka A. I. Paski, Erwin Makmur, Eko Sulystyo, Philippe Peyrillé, Zhe Feng, Adrian J. Matthews, and Jerome M. Schmidt

wind vector anomalies during the Makassar flood event. (a) Total wind anomalies, as well as wind anomalies filtered for (b) convectively coupled Kelvin waves, (c) the Madden–Julian oscillation, and (d) convectively coupled equatorial Rossby waves. The flood zone at Makassar is shown by a blue circle. On 20 January, a CCKW is active with westerly anomalies over the eastern Indian Ocean and easterly anomalies over the western Maritime Continent ( Fig. 8b ), with a zone of convergence between these

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Arun Kumar, Jieshun Zhu, and Wanqiu Wang

the largest amount of variance for U200. The regions of maximum explained variance, however, is shifted farther eastward and westward of the maximum variance explained in the OLR. A large shift in the maximum for U200 variance is consistent with eastward-propagating Rossby waves and westward-propagating Kelvin waves that are associated with a maximum in precipitation variability and OLR variability, respectively, over the eastern Indian Ocean. The difference in the spatial structure of explained

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Lei Song and Renguang Wu

anomalies over East Asia contribute to the deepening of the East Asian trough. Anticyclonic anomalies emerge over the northern Indian Ocean on day −9, which is a Rossby wave response to anomalous tropical heating ( Fig. 9b ). The anomalous tropical heating is enhanced afterward, which induces the enhancement of poleward Rossby wave train ( Figs. 9c,d ). Like the MC convection-related cold events, the poleward wave energy dispersion contributes to the development of the East Asian trough and the

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

primary contributor to the fluctuations, the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) also plays an important role, as IOD-induced coastal Kelvin waves propagate along the Sumatra–Java coast of Indonesia and influence ITF transport. ENSO depends on the rearrangement of heat within the climate system and especially in the tropical Pacific Ocean ( Mayer et al. 2014 ; Cheng et al. 2019b ). There is a build-up (recharge) of heat in the warm pool area of the tropical western Pacific in the vicinity of Indonesia prior to

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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Fuqing Zhang

pronounced variability at higher frequencies in addition to the intraseasonal evolution. A prominent component of that over the Indian Ocean is due to 2-day waves ( Zuluaga and Houze 2013 ; Yu et al. 2018 ). Two-day waves have been noted across the Indo-Pacific warm pool region and extensively studied, although their exact cause remains uncertain ( Chen and Houze 1997 ; Takayabu et al. 1996 ; Haertel and Kiladis 2004 ). Yet the most prominent, regular, and coherent signal at high frequency is that due

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

TC genesis to take place. Tropical waves can also interact with the prominent diurnal variability over the MC and SCS. In MJO events, the mean and diurnal amplitude of land precipitations over the MC are enhanced 6 days ahead of the MJO convection envelope, while the precipitation over the coastal ocean is largely suppressed ( Peatman et al. 2014 ; Birch et al. 2016 ; Hung and Sui 2018 ). Baranowski et al. (2016b) tracked the KW events passing MC using satellite observations to identify the

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