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Gil Lemos, Alvaro Semedo, Mikhail Dobrynin, Melisa Menendez, and Pedro M. A. Miranda

models ( Wang et al. 2010 ). Under the auspices of the Coordinated Ocean Wave Climate projections (COWCLIP) project ( Hemer et al. 2010 , 2012 ), supported by the World Climate Research Program–Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (WCRP-JCOMM), several dynamical and statistical global wave climate projections have recently been produced. The first studies were based on phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) GCM climate simulations for the forcing

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A. K. Laing

M^- 1985 A.K. LAING 481An Assessment of Wave Observations from Ships in Southern Oceans A. K. LAINGNew Zealand Meteorological Service(Manuscript received 3 May 1984, in final form 19 November 1984)ABSTRACT Observations of wind waves and swell from ship reports are investigated. Comparisons are made betweenestimates of wave parameters made from ships in

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H. Salmun, A. Molod, K. Wisniewska, and F. S. Buonaiuto

al. 2007 ) estimates that over the next century global sea level is likely to rise between 18 and 59 cm, and this rise will extend the zone of impact from storms, storm surge, and storm waves farther inland. The potential for property damage and loss of life due to storm surge and flooding necessitates accurate predictions of high water levels associated with storm conditions. Storm surge is commonly defined as the difference between the predicted astronomical tide and the observed water level

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H. Salmun, A. Molod, F. S. Buonaiuto, K. Wisniewska, and K. C. Clarke

weather maps, wave heights, water levels, and reanalysis data. Mather et al. (1964) used coastal damage reports in New York and New Jersey and determined that coastal storms affect the region on average once every 1.4 yr. One important limitation to this approach is that coastal development over time increases the apparent number of damaging storms ( Zhang et al. 2000 ). Colucci (1976) used surface weather maps to compute an annual storm frequency in the region from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

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W. E. Bleick and F. D. Faulkner

APRm1965 W. E. BLEICK AND F. D. FAULI(NER 217Minimal-Time Ship Routing W. E. B~mcx A~D F. D.U. S. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Calif. (Manuscript received 22 September 1964)ABSTRACT A recent theory of minimabtime ship routing through time-dependent ocean wave height and directionfields is put to a numerical test by using a series of semidaily analyses furnished by the U. S. Navy FleetNumerical

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John Coll, David K. Woolf, Stuart W. Gibb, and Peter G. Challenor

primary mode of wintertime variability in the North Atlantic region (NA), affecting numerous climate parameters. The NAO is related to the strength and track of storms and depressions across the NA and into Europe and to the strength of the prevailing westerly winds ( Osborn 2006 ; Vallis and Gerber 2008 ). NAO variability influences the mean winter climate over Europe, climate extremes ( Scaife et al. 2008 ), ocean circulation ( Bellucci et al. 2008 ), and wave heights in basin seas ( Cañellas et al

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Richmond W. Longley

wave is found to 5t into the pattern discovered by other scientists.The 24-hr wave is well-marked and shows variations that result from orography and topography, and fromthe contrast between ]and and ocean. Observations from two stations above 2 km show differences whichwould appear to arise because of their different locations relative to the area of mountain ridges.1. Introduction The semi-diurnal pressure wave of the equatorialregions is well known to meteorologists. Spar (1952a

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Brian C. Zachry, John L. Schroeder, Andrew B. Kennedy, Joannes J. Westerink, Chris W. Letchford, and Mark E. Hope

using SWAN+ADCIRC, and observed waves offshore in the Gulf of Mexico. Unlike the open ocean where both National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration buoys and rapid-response gauges (e.g., Kennedy et al. 2010 ) provided wave observations during Ike's landfall, no such gauges existed in the ship channel. Hence, the authors simulated the wave and surge conditions using a SWAN+ADCIRC hindcast of Hurricane Ike. The simulation was conducted on the SL16 + TX grid, which is an unstructured, finite

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Gilbert S. Raynor and Janet V. Hayes

waves but some by roll vortices. Each casewas documented with respect to date, time, wind speed, wind direction and stability, and described by duration,number of waves, angular amplitude and period. Hourly wind data for the same years were examined todetermine the frequency of onshore flows.Most meander cases occurred in spring and summer, at low to moderate wind speeds and with stableconditions over the ocean. Duration varied from 4 to 438 mm and averaged 94 mm. The number of halfwaves per case

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Merritt N. Deeter and K. Franklin Evans

. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 620–638. Racette, P., R. F. Adler, J. R. Wang, A. J. Gasiewski, D. M. Jackson, and D. S. Zacharias, 1996: An airborne Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer for cloud, precipitation, and atmospheric water vapor studies. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 13, 610–619. Schmetz, J., and Coauthors, 1995: Monthly mean large-scale analyses of upper-tropospheric humidity and wind field divergence derived from three geostationary satellites. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 76, 1578

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