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Yijun He, Hui Shen, and William Perrie

1. Introduction Ocean waves are an important component of upper ocean dynamics. The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been widely used to measure ocean surface wave spectra from space since the Seasat satellite was launched in 1978. Many papers have been published dealing with the wave imaging mechanism and slope retrieval method; for example, Alpers et al. (1981) reviewed the detectability of ocean waves by real and synthetic aperture radar, and Hasselmann et al. (1985) summarized the

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J. Gómez-Enri, C. P. Gommenginger, M. A. Srokosz, P. G. Challenor, and J. Benveniste

previous altimeters on ERS-1 and - 2 . The RA-2 ocean retracker is the result of a comparative study of various ocean-retracking algorithms ( ESA 2004 ) and is based on a modification of the Hayne model ( Hayne 1980 ). This model is an extension of the Brown model ( Brown 1977 ), with some nonlinearity of the ocean waves included by setting the wave skewness to a fixed constant value. The RA-2 altimeter design also allows improved estimates of the slope of the leading edge of the waveform in low-wave

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Xuan Wang, Romain Husson, Haoyu Jiang, Ge Chen, and Guoping Gao

1. Introduction Sentinel is a continuity mission that began after ERS-1 , ERS-2 , and Envisat ended in 2000, 2011, and 2012, respectively, with a finer spatial resolution, higher signal-to-noise, and broader image coverage. Sentinel-1A was launched on 3 April 2014 and is equipped with synthetic aperture radar (SAR), that routinely measures all-day accessible 2D swell spectra in open-ocean areas through a special image mode known as “wave mode” (WV). Sentinel-1A coverage is global with

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Angelicque White, Karin Björkman, Eric Grabowski, Ricardo Letelier, Steve Poulos, Blake Watkins, and David Karl

1. Introduction The vertical displacement of waves can be employed to transfer deep, nutrient-rich water to the surface of the ocean using a rather simple pump design originally conceived by Isaacs et al. (1976) . A modern version of this concept is depicted in Fig. 1 . It consists of a vertical pipe attached to a free-floating surface buoy. A valve that opens and closes at opposite phases of a wave cycle is installed at the bottom end of the pipe. As the buoy moves down the surface of a wave

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Jian-Guo Li and Martin Holt

1. Introduction Ocean wave forecasts continue to be important for marine transportation, coastal defense, ship design, offshore oil exploration, search and rescue operations, water sports, and other marine activities. Ocean surface waves also play an active role in the ocean–atmosphere exchange of mass, heat, and momentum ( Fairall et al. 2003 ), especially at high wind speeds ( Powell et al. 2003 ) and hence should be taken into account in coupled ocean–atmospheric models. Compared to the

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George L. Mellor, Mark A. Donelan, and Lie-Yauw Oey

1. Introduction This paper follows a paper by Mellor (2003 , hereafter M03 ), which, however, has been revised ( Mellor 2008 ); the revisions did change Eqs. (6) – (8) below but do not affect any calculated results in this paper since coupling with an ocean has not been activated. The phase-averaged, wave–current equations of motion were extended to the third vertical dimension. In much of the literature (e.g., Phillips 1977 ), the wave interacting continuity and momentum equations were, a

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Maria Paola Clarizia and Christopher S. Ruf

cm or greater ( Chen-Zhang et al. 2016 ). As a result, there is greater sensitivity of GNSS-R measurements to ocean swell or other, longer, wavelengths that are not directly forced by the local winds and that are often characterized through the significant wave height (SWH) ( Germain et al. 2004 ; Clarizia et al. 2009 ; Marchan-Hernandez et al. 2010 ; Zavorotny et al. 2014 ). This sensitivity can be problematic for the retrieval of wind speed, since a component of the variance in the

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R. Pinkel, M. A. Goldin, J. A. Smith, O. M. Sun, A. A. Aja, M. N. Bui, and T. Hughen

1. Introduction The Wirewalker (WW) is a vertically profiling instrument package propelled by ocean waves. In its simplest form, it is a means of attaching any internally recording instrument to a wire suspended from the sea surface. The WW’s profiling extends the one-dimensional time series recording of the instrument to a two-dimensional depth–time record. The elements of the WW system include a surface buoy, a wire suspended from the buoy, a weight at the end of the wire, and the profiler

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Jennifer L. Irish, Jennifer M. Wozencraft, A. Grant Cunningham, and Claudine Giroud

intercomparison of nearshore directional wave sensors. IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. , OE-8 , 254 – 271 . Howell, G. L. , 1998 : Shallow water directional wave gages using short baseline arrays. Coastal Eng. , 35 , 85 – 102 . 10.1016/S0378-3839(98)00031-3 Hwang, P. A. , Walsh E. J. , Krabill W. B. , Swift R. N. , Manizade S. S. , Scott J. F. , and Earle M. D. , 1998 : Airborne remote sensing applications to coastal wave research. J. Geophys. Res. , 103 , 18791 – 18800 . 10.1029/98JC00895

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Philip W. Kithil

We appreciate the considerable effort by the authors before, during, and after the Ocean Productivity Perturbation Experiment (OPPEX; White et al. 2010 ) and offer the following comments on the OPPEX project, as well as subsequent development activity resulting directly from the lessons learned: The Atmocean wave pumps supplied for the OPPEX test were custom prototypes, not fully engineered “commercially available wave pumps.” Winding the two sections of 150-m tubes onto the central coupler

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