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Jennifer A. MacKinnon, Zhongxiang Zhao, Caitlin B. Whalen, Amy F. Waterhouse, David S. Trossman, Oliver M. Sun, Louis C. St. Laurent, Harper L. Simmons, Kurt Polzin, Robert Pinkel, Andrew Pickering, Nancy J. Norton, Jonathan D. Nash, Ruth Musgrave, Lynne M. Merchant, Angelique V. Melet, Benjamin Mater, Sonya Legg, William G. Large, Eric Kunze, Jody M. Klymak, Markus Jochum, Steven R. Jayne, Robert W. Hallberg, Stephen M. Griffies, Steve Diggs, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Eric P. Chassignet, Maarten C. Buijsman, Frank O. Bryan, Bruce P. Briegleb, Andrew Barna, Brian K. Arbic, Joseph K. Ansong, and Matthew H. Alford

The study summarizes recent advances in our understanding of internal wave–driven turbulent mixing in the ocean interior and introduces new parameterizations for global climate ocean models and their climate impacts. Ocean turbulence influences the transport of heat, freshwater, dissolved gases such as CO 2 , pollutants, and other tracers. It is central to understanding ocean energetics and reducing uncertainties in global circulation and simulations from climate models. The dissipation of

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Jose-Henrique G. M. Alves, Paul Wittmann, Michael Sestak, Jessica Schauer, Scott Stripling, Natacha B. Bernier, Jamie McLean, Yung Chao, Arun Chawla, Hendrik Tolman, Glenn Nelson, and Stephen Klotz

The first multicenter collaborative ensemble to make probabilistic ocean wave forecasts—operational for two years now—performs better than the ensemble systems and deterministic forecasts of individual centers. The U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) have joined forces to establish the first multicenter ensemble to provide probabilistic forecasts of wind-generated ocean waves. Results from the

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R. M. Clancy, J. E. Kaitala, and L. F. Zambresky

The Spectral Ocean Wave Model (SOWM) has been an operational product at Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center since the mid 1970s; the Global Spectral Ocean Wave Model (GSOWM) was developed to replace it. An operational test of GSOWM, using buoy, ocean-weather-station, and ship-reported wave-height data for verification, was conducted during the winter of 1984/85 by several components of the Naval Oceanography Command. This test indicated that GSOWM was superior to SOWM and that both models exhibited root-mean-square significant-wave-height errors on the order of 1 m. Wave-height errors deduced from the ship observations were comparable to those calculated from the buoy data. The GSOWM scatter index, determined from the buoy and ocean-weather-station data and defined as the standard deviation of the model-predicted wave-height error divided by the mean observed wave height, averaged 0.34.

As a result of the study reported here, GSOWM replaced SOWM as the U.S. Navy's operational wave model in June of 1985. Examples of GSOWM output, illustrating both the capabilities and shortcomings of the model, are presented.

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Luigi Cavaleri, Francesco Barbariol, Alvise Benetazzo, and Takuji Waseda

WISE: WAVES IN SEA ENVIRONMENT What : Eighty wind-wave scholars from 22 countries met to report on their latest results, both as applications and wave physics, discussing not only the present state of the art, but mainly the lines along which future actions, in particular the interactions between ocean and atmosphere, should be directed. When : 12–16 May 2019 Where : Jozankei, Hokkaido, Japan Within the present abundance of ocean wave physics and modeling meetings, Waves in Sea Environment

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Edward D. Zaron and Cesar B. Rocha

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN INTERNAL GRAVITY WAVES AND MESO/SUBMESOSCALE CURRENTS IN THE OCEAN What : An international group of 45 physical oceanographers from North America, Europe, and Asia met to discuss observational evidence, theoretical descriptions, and consequences of interactions between high-frequency internal gravity waves and low-frequency mesoscale and submesoscale currents in the ocean. When : 10–11 February 2018 Where : Portland, Oregon Satellite altimetry, an observational technique

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E. Bouws, D. Jannink, and G. J. Komen

There are indications that the mean significant wave height at Seven Stones Light Vessel has increased in the period 1960–85. This is of considerable interest for the design of offshore structures and for coastal defense. In this note, the authors present new results based on the analysis of a collection of more than 20 000 hand-drawn wave charts. These charts were produced routinely between 1960 and 1988 in a manner that remained essentially unchanged throughout this period. The results are in remarkable agreement with the trend observed at Seven Stones Light Vessel.

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Basil W. Wilson

Details are presented of observations and photographs of the sea surface in the Gulf of Mexico, near Galveston, obtained during a south-north run on a formal cruise of the A. A. Jakkula, oceanographic vessel of the Texas A. & M. Research Foundation. The occasion was highlighted by the advent of a norther which provided an example of incipient wind-generation of waves from ripples. The first stage of the run had following winds and swells from the south. After a period of calm the wind backed to the north and wavelets from the north developed against the southerly swell. Good agreement is obtained between the observed heights and periods of waves and those determind by forecasting procedures which make suitable allowance for the moving fetch and the variability of the wind within it.

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TENTH CONFERENCE ON ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC WAVES AND STABILITY

Big Sky Resort, Big Sky, Montana, 5–9 June 1995

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L. Cavaleri, B. Fox-Kemper, and M. Hemer

WHERE THE INTERACTION BEGINS. Gravity wind-wave–driven processes at the ocean surface—including radiation fluxes and energy, mass, and momentum exchanges—play an important role in the coupled climate system. Erik Mollo-Christensen of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and builder of one of the first air–sea interaction buoys used to tell his students: “Meteorologists consider the ocean as a wet surface. Oceanographers consider the atmosphere as a place where wind blows.” Of course

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E.A. D'Asaro, P. G. Black, L. R. Centurioni, Y.-T. Chang, S. S. Chen, R. C. Foster, H. C. Graber, P. Harr, V. Hormann, R.-C. Lien, I.-I. Lin, T. B. Sanford, T.-Y. Tang, and C.-C. Wu

The interactions between typhoons and the ocean vary greatly depending on the properties of the storm and of the ocean. Tropical cyclones (TCs) interact with both the atmosphere and the upper ocean. They draw their energy from the warm ocean, but in doing so also change the ocean in a broad swath around their track by direct cooling and through the action of the ocean waves and currents generated by TC winds ( Leipper 1967 ; Price 1981 ; Black 1983 ; Shay 2010 ; and references therein). This

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