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Bunmei Taguchi and Niklas Schneider

in atmosphere–ocean coupled general circulation models (CGCM; Latif and Barnett 1994 ; Kwon and Deser 2007 ; Teng and Branstator 2011 ). While advection by the mean flow is suggested as the underlying cause, OHC anomalies in general are active tracers that propagate as baroclinic Rossby waves along trajectories distinct from mean flow advection. Clarifying the dynamics of the propagating OHC anomalies is the subject of this contribution. A number of processes can account for the dichotomy of

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Bunmei Taguchi, Niklas Schneider, Masami Nonaka, and Hideharu Sasaki

OHC represents westward-propagating jet-trapped Rossby waves. Fig . 7. (a) Longitude–time diagram of dynamical ocean heat content anomaly averaged over 34°–40°N based on the Ishii analysis (color shading; K). Superimposed with red (blue) contours are dynamic height relative to 2000 m for 0.02 (−0.02) m 2 s −2 . (b) As in (a), but based on OFES hindcast and the contours show sea surface height anomaly for 5.0 (−5.0) cm. Note that color scales are different and shown at the bottom of each panel

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Thomas Kilpatrick, Niklas Schneider, and Bo Qiu

coupling between sea surface temperature and wind stress in the California Current System . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 37 , 495 – 517 . Czaja , A. , and N. Blunt , 2011 : A new mechanism for ocean–atmosphere coupling in midlatitudes . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 137 , 1095 – 1101 , doi:10.1002/qj.814 . Durran , D. R. , 1990 : Mountain waves and downslope winds. Atmospheric Processes over Complex Terrain, Meteor. Monogr., No. 45, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 59–81 . Feliks , Y. , M. Ghil , and

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Adèle Révelard, Claude Frankignoul, Nathalie Sennéchael, Young-Oh Kwon, and Bo Qiu

atmospheric forcing that generated the oceanic variability. As discussed in section 1 , the low-frequency variability of the KE is largely controlled by large-scale wind stress curl variations that lead to oceanic adjustment via baroclinic Rossby wave propagation, which also initiates frontal-scale inertial fluctuations. The observations and linear Rossby wave models suggest that the KE is primarily forced by wind stress curl anomalies with a delay of 3–4 years ( Ceballos et al. 2009 ; Qiu 2003 ). Hence

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Ryu Saiki and Humio Mitsudera

-band formation have been discussed since the 1980s. McPhee (1979 , 1982 , 1983) suggested that an ice edge band may be separated from the top of the ice pack by the reduction of drag between sea ice and ocean owing to intense buoyancy flux by melting when the ice edge moves into warm water. Wadhams (1983) suggested that inhomogeneity of the wave radiation stress in the fetch-limited open waters of various spacing would produce ice bands. The wave radiation stress is concentrated on floes at the

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Kohei Takatama and Niklas Schneider

focused on its impact on the ocean and subsequent coupled responses. This effect improves simulations of El Niño–Southern Oscillation ( Luo et al. 2005 ), of tropical instability waves ( Seo et al. 2007 ; Small et al. 2009 ), and of eddy energetics in the California Current ( Seo et al. 2016 ). The impact on the atmosphere of the momentum transport from ocean currents has focused on the direct response of winds and wind stress. Kelly et al. (2001) indicated along-current wind stress increases of

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Shinichiro Kida, Bo Qiu, Jiayan Yang, and Xiaopei Lin

the pathways of the waves that enter the Tsushima Strait from the subpolar region (blue) and the subtropical region (red). The upper oceanic circulation in the Japan Sea consists of an inflow from the south (Tsushima Strait) and outflows to the northeast (Tsugaru and Soya Straits). The inflow is known as the Tsushima Warm Current, and its annual-mean transport, according to long-term measurements from bottom-mounted ADCP ( Teague et al. 2002 ) and ship-mounted ADCP ( Isobe et al. 2002 ; Takikawa

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, and Akira Kuwano-Yoshida

anomalies in winter under positive feedback forcing from anomalous activity of synoptic-scale migratory disturbances along the nearby storm track (cf. Kushnir et al. 2002 ). As the SAFZ forms the boundary between warm Kuroshio and cool Oyashio waters with climatologically tight SST, meridional displacement of the SAFZ resulting from incoming oceanic Rossby waves yields meridionally confined persistent SST anomalies ( Seager et al. 2001 ; Schneider et al. 2002 ; Nakamura and Kazmin 2003 ). Unlike in

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R. Justin Small, Frank O. Bryan, Stuart P. Bishop, Sarah Larson, and Robert A. Tomas

values (cf. with Fig. 3d ). In contrast, the equatorial band of the eastern Pacific and Atlantic exhibits a different character of OHFC variability, with only a small part driven by Ekman transport. This is expected in this region where a nonlocal response to wind anomalies through wave propagation is an important and well-understood component of the variability in upper-ocean heat content (cf. Figs. 4b and 3b ). Fig . 4. Role of Ekman advection of heat in (a),(b) LR and (c),(d) HR. (a

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Hyodae Seo, Arthur J. Miller, and Joel R. Norris

(ignoring the wave effects on currents) as where τ is the wind stress, ρ a is the density of the air, C D is the drag coefficient, and W and U are the 10-m wind speed and the surface current speed, respectively. The ocean eddies influence the wind stress through SSTs modifying W via marine boundary layer (MABL) dynamics (e.g., Wallace et al. 1989 ; Samelson et al. 2006 ) and surface currents creating velocity shear across the air–sea interface. To illustrate the SST effect on the wind

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