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Diandong Ren and Lance M. Leslie

residing in relatively warm places. Similarly, many researchers ( Shepherd et al. 2003 ; Glasser and Scambos 2008 ; Vieli et al. 2007 ; Rignot and Jacobs 2002 ) also identified warm ocean water incision as a contributor. In situations of significantly fatigued cracks, periodic forcing at the calving front by storm-caused infragravity waves ( Bromirski et al. 2010 ) serves as a trigger for calving of peripheral ice shelves. Modeling of rift generation and development has evolved from the elastic

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Arne Melsom, Steven D. Meyers, James J. O'Brien, Harley E. Hurlburt, and Joseph E. Metzger

extratropical oceans in two ways: locally, through changes in the surface winds, and, remotely, via tropically generated, coastally trapped Kelvin waves. Although the effect on the ocean circulation by surface winds is local, the surface wind may in itself be remotely forced by atmospheric wave motions. Kelvin waves associated with El Niño warm events suppress upwelling of denser and nutrient-rich water masses, and those associated with El Viejo (La Niña) cold events enhance such upwelling. Both alter the

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Kwang-Yul Kim, James J. O'Brien, and Albert I. Barcilon

spring. The propagation speed of the Kelvin waves as inferred from Movie 3 (∼1.5 m s −1 ) is much less than the theoretical speed because the Kelvin waves shown in Movie 3 are forced waves not free waves. In fact, the propagation speed inferred from Movie 3 represents the eastward movement of the region of ocean–atmosphere coupling, which generates the forced Kelvin waves. This speed is consistent with the eastward propagation speed of the surface zonal wind ( Clarke and Shu, 2000 ). The wave

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Mark R. Jury

.1175/1520-0493(1980)108<1827:TOOAWD>2.0.CO;2 . Arndt , D. S. , M. O. Baringer , and M. R. Johnson , Eds., 2010 : State of the Climate in 2009 . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 91 , s1 – s222 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-91-7-StateoftheClimate . Berry , G. J. , and C. D. Thorncroft , 2005 : Case study of an intense African easterly wave . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 133 , 752 – 766 , doi: 10.1175/MWR2884.1 . Chassignet , E. P. , and Coauthors , 2009 : US GODAE: Global ocean prediction with the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM

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A. Birol Kara, Charlie N. Barron, Alan J. Wallcraft, and Temel Oguz

between the atmosphere and ocean, the internal ocean dynamics, tidal currents, and wave propagation, etc., the influence of teleconnection patterns cannot be neglected. In particular, climatic variability in the SSH anomaly are found to be related with the climate indices during the SSH shift mode of 1997–2002. Therefore, some of the overall variations in the SSH anomalies can be attributed to large-scale atmospheric events over the Black Sea during periods when the indices are correlated

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Mark R. Jury

1. Introduction Convective weather systems in the Caribbean often originate from African easterly waves that are modulated by the large-scale circulation and thermal energy from the sea ( Wang et al. 2006 ; Jury et al. 2007 ; Kossin et al. 2010 ). Tropical cyclogenesis is frequent in the eastern (Lesser, Windward) Antilles Islands (11°–18°N, 64°–57°W), but trade wind upwelling north of Venezuela inhibits development there ( Shieh and Colucci 2010 ). Intraseasonal oscillations affect these

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Y. C. Sud and G. K. Walker

of the role of salinity in influencing or maintaining the global circulation, even though there is some element of it in our analysis. We prefer to postpone addressing that question until a better GCM with cloud water substance, gravity wave drag, and refined cloud physics replaces the current one. Nonetheless, we must emphasize that the current GCM is amply suitable for determining whether oceanic salinity could (or could not) be ignored in GCMs. We have compared as well as differentially

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Ashley M. Merritt-Takeuchi and Sen Chiao

developed and moved toward the Atlantic Ocean as a strong tropical wave ( Cangialosi and Franklin 2012 ). Because of deep convection within the region of thunderstorms, the easterly wave further developed and was categorized as a tropical depression at 1200 UTC 25 August. As the tropical depression headed westward, it gained intensification because of warm sea surface temperatures and relatively moderate wind stress. On 29 August, the tropical depression was located about 407 km east of the Leeward

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Shaoping Chu, Scott Elliott, Mathew Maltrud, Jose Hernandez, and David Erickson

formation of stratus cloud layers ( Charlson et al., 1987 ). Paleogeochemical evidence suggests that DMS may feed back through the iron cycle during periods of either glaciation or CO 2 -induced warming ( Watson and Liss, 1998 ). Despite strong associations with terrestrial radiative forcing, however, comprehension of the oceanic DMS distribution remains largely empirical. Attempts have been made to correlate reduced sulfur with chlorophyll density ( Andreae, 1986 ; Belviso et al., 2000 ; Aumont et al

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Shijie Zhong and Michael Gurnis

dynamically evolving margins were made by Gurnis and Hager ( Gurnis and Hager, 1988 ), who simulated plates of variable size through a weak zone formulation; one weak zone was attached to an overriding plate that was fixed as a reference frame, while the other weak zone was used to simulate a ridge that moves with the mean velocity of the two adjacent oceanic plates. In two- dimensional models with periodic boundary conditions, Gurnis and Hager ( Gurnis and Hager, 1988 ) found that the dip of slabs was

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