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P. B. Rhines

oscillating a small glass cylinder, seen in the lower left quadrant. Linear Ekman friction acts to damp the mode somewhat; its group velocity is principally eastward, that is counterclockwise, or cyclonic. One can see the wave crest amplitude diminishing in this direction. Animations (see www.ocean.washington.edu/research/gfd/ ) illustrate how rapid rotation endows the fluid with PV elasticity. The Jell-O-like nature appears in real time at Ω = 3.2 s −1 , and even more vividly in time-lapse videos. The

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Francis Codron

stationary waves. The climatological 300-hPa zonal wind for the months of December–January, March–April, and June–August is shown in Fig. 1 . In summer and fall there is only one eddy-driven jet, mostly zonally symmetric (although a weak subtropical jet appears in fall). In a previous paper ( Codron 2005 ), it was shown that in these two seasons the Southern Hemisphere annular mode (SAM) consists, at all longitudes, in a dipole of wind anomalies centered on the jet maximum. Between different

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D. G. Dritschel and M. E. McIntyre

1. Introduction Chaotic flows in stratified, rotating fluid systems like planetary atmospheres and oceans are often called “turbulent.” However, in such systems there is no such thing as turbulence without waves, a point well brought out in the celebrated paper of Rhines (1975) . One way to appreciate the point is to note that such systems always have background gradients of potential vorticity (PV) and then consider the implications for the momentum and angular momentum budgets. As will be

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Peter L. Read, Yasuhiro H. Yamazaki, Stephen R. Lewis, Paul D. Williams, Robin Wordsworth, Kuniko Miki-Yamazaki, Joël Sommeria, and Henri Didelle

, whose origins are still poorly understood in detail, though may lead to Rossby wave breaking as energy cascades upscale from the smaller-scale convective forcing. Further studies of the relationship between eddy forcing and stability criteria in experiments and models may be a useful source of further information on these mechanisms for driving zonal flows on the outer planets. Finally, we remark that the extent to which the small-scale jets found in ocean observations and models violate the

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O. Martius, C. Schwierz, and H. C. Davies

are marked with an A (A1 in row 1 and 3 and A2 in row 2 and 4, note that A1 and A2 mark the position of the same feature in different fields) and the anticyclonically breaking waves accordingly with a B in both figures. In the first panel of Fig. 3a (1800 UTC 12 February 1963) the 310- and 340-K isolines are coaligned and are in spatial proximity over the eastern United States, indicating a steep tropopause that is accompanied by a jet maximum in that area. Over the central Atlantic Ocean, the

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Yuji Kitamura and Keiichi Ishioka

– 242 . Rhines , P. B. , 1975 : Waves and turbulence on a beta-plane. J. Fluid Mech. , 69 , 417 – 443 . Rhines , P. B. , 1977 : The dynamics of unsteady currents. The Sea , E. D. Goldberg et al., Eds., Marine Modeling, Vol. 6, Wiley, 189–318 . Rhines , P. B. , 1994 : Jets. Chaos , 4 , 313 – 339 . Rhines , P. B. , and W. R. Holland , 1979 : A theoretical discussion of eddy-driven mean flows. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans , 3 , 289 – 325 . Shigehisa , Y. , 1983 : Normal modes of

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John Marshall, David Ferreira, J-M. Campin, and Daniel Enderton

. Deep-Sea Res. , 21 , 499 – 528 . Hartmann , D. L. , and F. Lo , 1998 : Wave-driven zonal flow vacillation in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Atmos. Sci. , 55 , 1303 – 1315 . Held , I. M. , 2001 : The partitioning of the poleward energy transport between the tropical ocean and atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci. , 58 , 943 – 948 . Hess , P. G. , 1993 : Maintenance of the intertropical convergence zone and the large-scale tropical circulation on a water-covered earth. J. Atmos. Sci. , 50

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Robert X. Black and Brent A. McDaniel

winter terminates with a relatively rapid breakdown of the polar vortex known as the stratospheric final warming (SFW), marking the final transition from westerlies to easterlies in the extratropical stratosphere. There is considerable interannual variability in the timing of SFW events ( Waugh and Rong 2002 ) since they are sensitive to the preexisting stratospheric flow structure and variations in the upward propagation of tropospheric planetary waves ( Waugh et al. 1999 ). SFW events are more

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Semion Sukoriansky, Nadejda Dikovskaya, and Boris Galperin

equatorial jets on Jupiter and Saturn while Williams (1978) and others applied it to the off-equatorial jets. Conclusive scaling with k −1 R has materialized neither in the Grenoble experiment ( Read et al. 2004 ) nor in the recent analysis of the eddy-resolving simulations of oceanic jets by Richards et al. (2006) . Chekhlov et al. (1996) have scrutinized the notion of the arrest of the inverse energy cascade and asserted that Rossby wave excitation cannot halt the cascade in principle. On the

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Yoshi-Yuki Hayashi, Seiya Nishizawa, Shin-ichi Takehiro, Michio Yamada, Keiichi Ishioka, and Shigeo Yoden

. Masuda , 2003 : Effect of horizontal divergence on the geostrophic turbulence on a beta-plane: Suppression of the Rhines effect. Phys. Fluids , 15 , 56 – 65 . Ollitrault , M. , M. Lankhorst , D. Frantantoni , P. Richardson , and W. Zenk , 2006 : Zonal intermediate currents in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 33 . L05605, doi:10.1029/2005GL025368 . Rhines , P. B. , 1975 : Waves and turbulence on a beta-plane. J. Fluid Mech. , 69 , 417 – 443 . Rhines

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