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Edward C. Johnston

MeteorologicalSatellite No. 1), was placed in a position 35,900 kmabove the equator at 45W. Soon thereafter the satellite began transmission of both visible and infrared(IR) data on a continuous basis both by day andby night. One of the dramatic events recorded during theinitial stages of the nighttime acquisition of full-discIR pictures was the very rapid 12-hr development ofa frontal wave over the northern Atlantic Ocean on12 June 1974. The four-picture sequence included here illustrates,at 4-hr intervals

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Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, and Marion Maturilli

the infrared satellite image at this time ( Fig. 2 ). Slightly more than 6 km above this cirrus deck, CALIOP detected a nearly 8-km-deep layer of synoptic-scale polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) embedded in an extended cold layer with temperatures less than 191 K. Within this layer, vertically tilted and horizontally separated patterns of enhanced attenuated backscatter are collocated with cold stratospheric temperature values less than 185 K ( Fig. 1b ). They are reminiscent of mountain-wave

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February i 969 155UDC 551.463.5535.39:551.507.362.2(084.12)PICTURE OF THE MONTH "Sunglint" FRANCES C. PARMENTERNational Environmental Satellite Center, ESSA, Washington,D.C.The ocean surface usually appears dark in satellitepictures because of its low reflectivity in visible light.However, when the water surface is viewed in such away that specular reflection of the sun enters the satellitecameras, the water will appear bright. The degree ofbrightness and areal extent of this reflection

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586MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEWPICTURE OF THE MONTHVol. 93, No. 10TIROS IX, Pass 835/834, Camera 2, Frame 4, 1028 GMT, April 1, 1965.Snow-covered terrain, foggy ocean, and mountain-waveclouds are distinctly separated and clearly visible in thisTIROS IX photograph, which is centered over southernNorway. The satellite altitude at picture time was ap-proximately 795 km., not far from perigee. North isindicated by the arrow. The photograph was taken onApril 1, 1965-the 5th anniversary of the launch

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wxoss t,he middleof the picture, part of Africa, and the Atlnntic Ocean about150 11. mi. south of the Cnnuries. The clouds north of theCANARY634FIGURE 2.--Mean sea surface isotherms (OF.) for June in theMadeira-Canary Island region, prepared from data and analysisfurnished by the Oceanographic Data Center, Washington, D.C.(hnw-y Islands are st,ratus and stratocumulus. Theirmarked discontinuity at, the islands reflects a strong ther-lntd and,ior dynamic mechanism because north to north-ettst winds

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erosion-producing waves to be tropicalcyclones that form off the west coasts of Mexico a,ndCentral America and move out into the cooler waters of thenortheast Pacific Ocean. During the summer hurricaneseason, storms in this area form with such regularitythat the northeast Pacific is now recognized as the world'ssecond most active oceanic area in t'he production oftropical cyclones (Gray 1968).Meteorological satellites occasionally detect several ofthese t,ropical cyclones simultaneously in various

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Bryce J. Weinand

explanation of these eddies involves more than topography since the flow was over the ocean and not entirely perpendicular to the mountains in a zonal direction. It does prove that eddies can be formed due to topography. It is not clear, however, how interaction between the upper-level short-wave trough axis and the eastern peaks of the Rocky Mountains can explain the long-lasting eddies in the present case. 4. Summary Even with hypotheses such as those given above, it is not apparent why small eddies

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David M. Schultz, Derek S. Arndt, David J. Stensrud, and Jay W. Hanna

-21.htm .] . Wilson , J. W. , T. M. Weckwerth , J. Vivekanandan , R. M. Wakimoto , and R. W. Russell , 1994 : Boundary-layer clear-air radar echoes: Origins of echoes and accuracy of derived winds. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 11 , 1184 – 1206 . Young , G. S. , D. A. R. Kristovich , M. R. Hjelmfelt , and R. C. Foster , 2002 : Rolls, streets, waves, and more: A review of quasi-two-dimensional structures in the atmospheric boundary layer. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 83

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Eric A. Hendricks, Brian D. McNoldy, and Wayne H. Schubert

1. Introduction One of the most important unsolved problems in tropical meteorology today is tropical cyclone (TC) intensity variability, including rapid intensification. It is widely known that TC intensity change is caused by environmental, oceanic, and internal dynamical factors ( Wang and Wu 2004 ). One such important internal process is the dynamic instability of the eyewall potential vorticity (PV) annulus, its breakdown, and subsequent eddy flux of PV from the eyewall into the eye. This

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Werner Alpers, Andrei Yu. Ivanov, and Knut-Frode Dagestad

: Estimation and validation of the transfer function CMOD4 . J. Geophys. Res. , 102 , 5767 – 5780 . Valenzuela , G. R. , 1978 : Theories for the interaction of electromagnetic and oceanic waves: A review . Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 13 , 61 – 85 .

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