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Roland A. Madden and Paul R. Julian

momentum. The oscillation is an important factor in the timing of active and break phasesof the Indian and Australian monsoons. It affects ocean waves, currents, and air-sea interaction. The oscillationwas particularly active during the First GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Global Experiment year,and some features that were evident during the Monsoon Experiment are described.1o Introduction Reviewing the literature on the phenomenon that we(Madden and Julian 1971) called the 40-50-day

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Clark Evans, Kimberly M. Wood, Sim D. Aberson, Heather M. Archambault, Shawn M. Milrad, Lance F. Bosart, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Christopher A. Davis, João R. Dias Pinto, James Doyle, Chris Fogarty, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Christian M. Grams, Kyle S. Griffin, John Gyakum, Robert E. Hart, Naoko Kitabatake, Hilke S. Lentink, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, William Perrie, Julian F. D. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Michael Riemer, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Yujuan Sun, and Fuqing Zhang

direct influence upon the cyclone’s ocean-wave field. Large ocean waves in TCs and extratropical cyclones alike pose hazards to marine activities including oil and gas extraction, fisheries, recreation, and transport. Generally, ocean wave growth is tied to cyclone characteristics such as translation speed, wind speed, and trapped-fetch length ( Bowyer and MacAfee 2005 ; MacAfee and Bowyer 2005 ). Strongly enhanced waves are more likely for strong storms moving quickly with relatively small trapped

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

concomitant momentum flux convergence acts to sharpen the jet ( Chang 2001 , 2005b ). Apparently, much of the mean flow modification occurs in the vicinity of the RWP. Most of the events with significant growth and decay of hemispheric total eddy kinetic energy can be traced back to a single RWP, especially when the RWP propagates across the highly baroclinic region in the south Indian Ocean. The final stage of the RWP life cycle is usually associated with Rossby wave breaking ( Fig. 9 ), that is, the

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J. R. Garratt

long period integrations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soe., 98, 809-832.Cox, C. S., and W. H. Munk, 1954: Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter. J. Mar. Res., 13, 198-227.Cressman, G. P., 1960: Improved terrain effects in barotropic forecasts. Mon. Wea. Rcv., 88, 327-342.Davidson, K. L., 1974: Observational results on the influence of stability and wind-wave coupling on momentum transfer and turbulent fluctuation over ocean waves. Bound. Layer Meteor., 6, 305-331. , and A

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Julia H. Keller, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, Heather M. Archambault, Lance Bosart, James D. Doyle, Jenni L. Evans, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Kyle Griffin, Patrick A. Harr, Naoko Kitabatake, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Florian Pantillon, Julian F. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Ryan D. Torn, and Fuqing Zhang

al. 2004 ; Agustí-Panareda et al. 2004 , 2005 ; Grams et al. 2011 ). The reasons for these differences in wave breaking and whether such large-scale circulation patterns associated with ET also exist in other ocean basins have not been investigated yet. In conclusion, the relative position between the transitioning cyclone and the upstream trough (i.e., phasing) is crucial in determining the reintensification of the transitioning cyclone as an extratropical cyclone, the amplification of the

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Tammy M. Weckwerth and David B. Parsons

significant small-scale moisture variations ( Weckwerth et al. 1996 ; Weckwerth 2000 ), (iii) a recommendation to conduct field campaigns for cross validation of water vapor measurement systems conceived at the 1998 National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Water Vapor Workshop ( Weckwerth et al. 1999 ), and (iv) the Thunderstorm Initiation Mobile Experiment (TIMEx), which could not be successful without demonstrated improvements in water vapor

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T. N. Krishnamurti

low frequency modes--especially on the time scale of 30to 50 days. It is becoming apparent that modulations of active and inactive spells of the monsoon are relatedto wave motions on this time scale. These MONEX data sets provide a strong signal for monitoring these waves.These wave motions on the planetary scale move eastward; on a more regional scale they move northward overthe monsoon region. Their behavior is illustrated with respect to the onset, active and break monsoons.1. Introductio

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David M. Schultz

the prefrontal air Those internal to the front include surface friction frontogenesis acting on alongfront temperature gradients moist processes descent of air ascent of air at the front generation of prefrontal bores and gravity waves The remainder of this section explores these possible explanations in the order listed above. a. Synoptic-scale forcing One way that fronts can develop prefrontal troughs or wind shifts is through the influence of a synoptic-scale system. Consider a case of a mid

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Robert A. Houze Jr.

of Atlantic tropical cyclones occur when African easterly waves ( Burpee 1972 ; Reed et al. 1977 , 1988 ; Thorncroft and Hodges 2001 ) move westward off the African continent, and a tropical cyclone spins up in the trough of the wave, provided the wave trough does not ingest dry midlevel air from the Saharan region ( Dunion and Velden 2004 ). Other Atlantic tropical cyclones develop when midlatitude synoptic-scale dynamics operating over a warm ocean surface set up conditions of large

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Daniel Keyser and M. A. Shapiro

452 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUMI/!14 REVIEWA Review of the Structure and Dynamics of Upper-Level Frontal Zones DANIEL KEYSERLaboratory for Atmospheres, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 M. A. SHAPIRONOAA/ERL/Wave Propagation Laboratory, Boulder, CO 80303(Manuscript received 28 March 1985, in final form 3 September 1985) This article

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