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Vanda Grubišić and Ivana Stiperski

for this given atmospheric vertical structure. As our simulations are free-slip, sharp downstream decay of the lee-wave amplitude cannot be attributed to surface friction. It is possible that this decay is a result of partial upward leakage of wave energy (cf. Fig. 5 ) or nonlinear interactions of excited wave modes as argued for internal gravity waves in the ocean downstream of a submerged ridge ( Lozovatsky et al. 2003 ). However, turbulent dissipation occurring underneath the first few wave

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James D. Doyle, Qingfang Jiang, Ronald B. Smith, and Vanda Grubišić

1. Introduction The Sierra Nevada is a north-northwest–south-southeast-oriented mountain range of approximately 650-km length, 100-km width, and features the tallest peak, Mt. Whitney (4417 m), and the steepest orographic gradient along the eastern slope in the contiguous United States ( Fig. 1 ). The Sierra Nevada is well known for generating large-amplitude mountain waves (i.e., the Sierra Wave). Although topographic ridges such as the Sierra Nevada are often considered a quasi

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Patrick A. Reinecke and Dale Durran

posteriori simulations indicate that simulated waves in high-resolution models were substantially stronger than observed ( Doyle and Jiang 2006 ). Mountain-wave overprediction is not limited to the European Alps. Garvert et al. (2007) used horizontal winds derived from a dual-Doppler radar mounted on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) P-3 aircraft to compare observations of a mountain-wave event over the Oregon Cascades to high-resolution model simulations. They found that the

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Vanda Grubišić and Brian J. Billings

Naval Research Laboratory’s Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS). Mon. Wea. Rev. , 125 , 1414 – 1430 . Holmboe , J. R. , and H. Klieforth , 1957 : Investigation of mountain lee waves and the airflow over the Sierra Nevada. Final report, Department of Meteorology, UCLA, Contract AF 19(604)–728, 283 pp . Kuettner , J. P. , 1959 : The rotor flow in the lee of mountains. GRD Research Notes, 6, AFCRC-TN-58-626, ASTIA Doc. AD-208862, 20 pp . Küttner , J. , 1938

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Ivana Stiperski and Vanda Grubišić

Research Laboratory’s Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 125 , 1414 – 1430 . Jiang , Q. , J. D. Doyle , and R. B. Smith , 2006 : Interaction between trapped lee waves and boundary layers . J. Atmos. Sci. , 63 , 617 – 633 . Jiang , Q. , J. D. Doyle , S. Wang , and R. B. Smith , 2007 : On boundary layer separation in the lee of mesoscale topography . J. Atmos. Sci. , 64 , 401 – 420 . Jiang , Q. , R. B. Smith , and J. D

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Qingfang Jiang and James D. Doyle

models. J. Geophys. Res. , 92 , 1009 – 1015 . Hertenstein , R. F. , and J. P. Kuettner , 2005 : Rotor types associated with steep lee topography: Influence of the wind profile. Tellus , 57A , 117 – 135 . Hodur , R. M. , 1997 : The Naval Research Laboratory’s Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS). Mon. Wea. Rev. , 125 , 1414 – 1430 . Holmboe , J. , and H. Klieforth , 1957 : Investigation of mountain lee waves and the air flow over the Sierra Nevada

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Vanda Grubišić and Brian J. Billings

topography upwind, leeside disturbances are almost exclusively generated by the main massif of the Sierra Nevada range. Additionally, the proximity of the Pacific Ocean provides a source of upper-level moisture that commonly gives rise to clouds atop the mountain-wave crests. Conducting a climatology of mountain-wave events in the Sierra Nevada is difficult because of the lack of routine measurements that can be directly and unambiguously related to mountain-wave activity. While mountain waves do have a

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Ronald B. Smith, Bryan K. Woods, Jorgen Jensen, William A. Cooper, James D. Doyle, Qingfang Jiang, and Vanda Grubišić

waves. J. Atmos. Sci. , 56 , 3010 – 3027 . Gill , A. E. , 1982 : Atmosphere–Ocean Dynamics . Academic Press, 662 pp . Grubišić , V. , and J. M. Lewis , 2004 : Sierra Wave Project revisited: 50 years later. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 85 , 1127 – 1142 . Grubišić , V. , and Coauthors , 2008 : The Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment: An overview of the field campaign and some highlights of special observations. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , in press . Held , I. M. , 1982 : On the

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Qingfang Jiang and James D. Doyle

moist processes will be needed in next-generation gravity wave drag and flow blocking parameterization for large-scale models. Acknowledgments This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Program Element 0601153 N. The first author was partially funded by National Science Foundation (Grant ATM-0749011). The simulations were made using the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) developed by the U.S Naval Research Laboratory. REFERENCES Barcilon , A. , and

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James D. Doyle, Saša Gaberšek, Qingfang Jiang, Ligia Bernardet, John M. Brown, Andreas Dörnbrack, Elmar Filaus, Vanda Grubišić, Daniel J. Kirshbaum, Oswald Knoth, Steven Koch, Juerg Schmidli, Ivana Stiperski, Simon Vosper, and Shiyuan Zhong

including sensitivity of mountain-wave predictions to the model formulation. During the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX; Grubišić et al. 2008 ), high-resolution forecasts were routinely conducted to assist in mission planning using a number of different three-dimensional nonhydrostatic numerical models such as the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS 1 ; Hodur 1997 ), two dynamical cores of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), namely the Advanced Research

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