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Lynda E. Chambers, Roan D. Plotz, Siosinamele Lui, Faapisa Aiono, Tile Tofaeono, David Hiriasia, Lloyd Tahani, ‘Ofa Fa’anunu, Seluvaia Finaulahi, and Albert Willy

), ocean currents and wave activity, rainfall, and lunar or astronomical cycles ( Green et al. 2010 ; Mondragón 2014 ; Kassam et al. 2018 ). In the Pacific, these seasonal calendars also have a cultural aspect, incorporating ceremonies, rituals, and community activities that are not always related to production or resource management ( Mondragón 2014 ). For example, astrological calendars are used to determine the best time of year to undertake voyages in Micronesia and Palau ( Goodenough 1951

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Sandy Smith-Nonini

1. Introduction As a gregarious adolescent, riding ponies and climbing trees in the 1960s, summer was my favorite season. But things have changed. The year 2016 was the warmest year since modern recordkeeping began in 1880, and the third year in a row of record-breaking surface temperatures, according to both NASA and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NASA 2017 ). So summer is now a deadly season: 70 000 people died from a 2003 heat wave in Europe ( Robine et al. 2008

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Mathew Alexander Stiller-Reeve, David B. Stephenson, and Thomas Spengler

onset vary from grid point to grid point. Here, we determine the rainfall threshold by calculating the mean pentad rainfall (mm day −1 ) for each grid point ( Matsumoto 1997 ). For example, if a grid point features a 2500-mm average annual rainfall, the threshold will be set to 6.85 mm day −1 , equivalent to a total pentad amount of 34.25 mm. We apply theses thresholds to the interpolated Reanalysis-1 and APHRODITE datasets. 3) Outgoing long wave radiation Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR

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Susan A. Crate

and project. 3. Case study a. Background To provide background for this analysis, I focus here on specific details of Sakha land tenure and the place of water in the Sakha ecosystem, since both are key to understanding the issues related to ‘water in mind’. Sakha are relative newcomers to their subarctic homeland, considering that their Turkic ancestors transmigrated from central Asia to southern Siberia circa tenth century, then up the Lena River to their present inhabitance in several waves

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Randy A. Peppler

Randall Ware, without whom none of this would have been possible. The author also acknowledges the wise guidance of his dissertation adviser and colleague, Karl Offen. Figure 1 was created with ArcGIS Online by William G. McPherson, Jr., and comes from Peppler (2012) . The author is indebted to the constructive and helpful insights of the three anonymous reviewers. Some funding was provided by the University of Oklahoma Graduate Student Senate and by the NOAA/Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric

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