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Jonathan Friedrich, Jannik Stahl, Gijsbert Hoogendoorn, and Jennifer M. Fitchett

area South African spans the subtropics to midlatitudes, surrounded by two thermally different oceans, resulting in a spatially highly heterogeneous climate ( Fitchett 2019 ) with regional differences between summer rainfall and winter rainfall, and year-round rainfall zones ( Roffe et al. 2019 ). The Great Escarpment divides the country into peripheral coastal areas and an elevated inland plateau. Roughly speaking, an east–west decline in annual precipitation can be detected ( Roffe et al. 2019

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Kyle Andrew Poyar and Nancy Beller-Simms

drew largely from downscaled national and regional climate projection and impact assessments (e.g., Keene, New Hampshire). Likewise each initiative was undertaken for different reasons to address different climate change concerns (see Table 2 ). Not surprisingly, geography was a leading component of cited climate change concerns. For instance, sea level rise in combination with the projected increased frequency and intensity of severe weather events were chief concerns of each ocean coastal

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Duncan Cook and Sally Garrett

take place. There is an increasing awareness that piracy off East Africa may be limited by the rough seas and increased winds that accompany monsoons ( Kingsley 2011 ; UKMTO 2011 ). Analysis of recent seasonal attack patterns, for example, suggests that pirates may alternate between the open waters of the Indian Ocean and the adjacent Gulf of Aden in response to the monsoon ( Bergen Risk Solutions 2011 ). Although no detailed studies exist, maritime experts have suggested that wave heights greater

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Nancy E. Westcott

research, and David Kristovich, Mike Timlin, and two anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. REFERENCES Bridges, C. A. , Ellis F. P. , and Taylor H. L. , 1976 : Mortality in St. Louis, Missouri, during Heat Waves in 1936, 1953, 1954, 1955, and 1966 . Environ. Res. , 12 , 38 – 48 . Changnon, D. , Gensini

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Jessica Kuonen, Flaxen Conway, and Ted Strub

and fishing, recreational boating and fishing, bar pilots, Coast Guard, and oil spill response though Web-based products ( Price and Rosenfeld 2012 ). A core group of these users, commercial fishermen, regularly risk personal safety, property, and economic loss ( Davis 2012 ; McDonald and Kucera 2007 ; Thorvaldsen 2013 ) and are particularly adept at seeking out sources of ocean condition information that include surface temperatures, currents, waves, and wind to inform their decisions ( Duncan

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Matthew J. Cutler, Jennifer R. Marlon, Peter D. Howe, and Anthony Leiserowitz

1. Introduction Heat is the leading cause of weather-related mortality in the United States and is a hazard with which much of the population has direct experience ( Borden and Cutter 2008 ). Recent research suggests that individuals in areas of greater social vulnerability more often perceive heat wave health risks, holding constant political attitudes and beliefs about climate change ( Akerlof et al. 2015 ). Heat is a health hazard that is expected to increase in frequency and intensity as

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Matthew J. Widlansky, H. Annamalai, Stephen B. Gingerich, Curt D. Storlazzi, John J. Marra, Kevin I. Hodges, Barry Choy, and Akio Kitoh

intense winds, torrential rainfall, high waves, and/or storm surge to island-based infrastructure. Geographical constraints in the Pacific Ocean, such as vast distances between isolated islands and limited availability of developable land away from the coast, pose extrinsic threats. Climate and geographical threats are exacerbated by geopolitical pressures to maintain security forces in the North Pacific. The numerous DoD installations on islands throughout the tropical and subtropical North Pacific

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Michelle D. Hawkins, Vankita Brown, and Jannie Ferrell

1. Introduction The National Oceanic and Atmospheric and Administration’s (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) adopted the heat index (HI) into its operations in 1979. The HI was based on the work of Robert G. Steadman, a textiles and materials professor at Colorado State University, who published his temperature–humidity index (THI) table in 1979 ( Steadman 1979 ). Steadman’s THI equations require variables that are not readily accessible for calculation from meteorological parameters

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Roberta Balstad

articles on social impacts of extreme weather events, such as Nancy E. Westcott’s article on the impacts of the 1954 midwestern U.S. heat wave ( Westcott 2011 ). Equally important, however, is research that helps us to understand ways to reduce the detrimental impacts of extreme weather events. The lead article in this issue on communicating weather forecast information to end users—in this case, to boaters—provides an example of such an approach. A plan to incorporate high-tech communications

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Claire Steinweg and William J. Gutowski Jr.

Assessment Program (NARCCAP) for providing the data we used. NARCCAP is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development (EPA). REFERENCES Anderson, G. B. , and Bell M. L. , 2011 : Heat waves in the United States: Mortality risk during heat waves and effect modification by heat wave characteristics in 43 U.S. communities

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