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Steven E. Koch, Wayne Feltz, Frédéric Fabry, Mariusz Pagowski, Bart Geerts, Kristopher M. Bedka, David O. Miller, and James W. Wilson

; Rottman and Simpson 1989 ; Haase and Smith 1989a , b ). When there is a stable waveguide of sufficient depth at low levels to trap the vertical propagation of wave energy, a bore may evolve into a family of solitary waves known as a “soliton” ( Christie et al. 1979 ; Fulton et al. 1990 ; Skyllingstad 1991 ). A solitary wave consists of a single wave of elevation that, owing to a balance between nonlinearity and dispersion, propagates without change of form. IHOP provided an unprecedented set of

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Robin L. Tanamachi, Wayne F. Feltz, and Ming Xue

solitary wave transition within an evolving nocturnal boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci. , 63 , 2016 – 2035 . Knuteson , R. O. , and Coauthors , 2004a : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part I: Instrument design. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 21 , 1763 – 1776 . Knuteson , R. O. , and Coauthors , 2004b : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 21 , 1777 – 1789 . Koch , S. E. , and W. L. Clark , 1999 : A

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John H. Marsham, Stanley B. Trier, Tammy M. Weckwerth, and James W. Wilson

instead reach their level of neutral buoyancy and perhaps overshoot this. Systems with no surface cold pool can still generate persistent lifting of conditionally unstable air, however, by generating a wave or bore in the stable air, as observed by Browning et al. (2010) and Marsham et al. (2010) and noted in simulations ( Crook and Moncrieff 1988 ; Schmidt and Cotton 1990 ; Buzzi et al. 1991 ; Dudhia et al. 1987 ; Stoelinga et al. 2003 ; Parker 2008 ; Schumacher and Johnson 2008

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Lindsay J. Bennett, Tammy M. Weckwerth, Alan M. Blyth, Bart Geerts, Qun Miao, and Yvette P. Richardson

organization of boundary layer convection often occurs in the form of two-dimensional horizontal convective rolls (cloud streets) or three-dimensional cells and is frequently observed in satellite images, particularly over the oceans ( Atkinson and Zhang 1996 ). Atkinson and Zhang (1996) presented a comprehensive review of mesoscale shallow convection and summarized the characteristics of rolls and cells. They concluded that in general rolls tend to occur in environments of moderate wind shear (1–10 m s

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Roger M. Wakimoto and Hanne V. Murphey

and derived updrafts based on the wind syntheses (to be shown later) were weak and the wind shift across the dryline was not distinct ( Fig. 4d ). The P-3 flew along an outflow boundary and a triple point formed by the intersection of the boundary with a dryline on 12 June ( Fig. 3e ). North–south-oriented banded structures in the radar reflectivity plots shown in Figs. 3e and 4e that emanate from the outflow boundary thin line have been hypothesized to be internal gravity waves ( Weckwerth et

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Margaret A. LeMone, Fei Chen, Mukul Tewari, Jimy Dudhia, Bart Geerts, Qun Miao, Richard L. Coulter, and Robert L. Grossman

conditions. Moreover, CBL structure can be influenced by interaction with tropospheric gravity waves (e.g., Clark et al. 1986 ; Balaji et al. 1993 ), requiring inclusion of a deeper domain than ordinarily used in LES. These factors, along with the convenience of having an NWP model with a reasonably robust surface model, led to the choice to run ARW-WRF run at 1-km resolution. We recognize the potential problems created by “double counting” associated with partially resolving CBL-scale motions and

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Edward I. Tollerud, Fernando Caracena, Steven E. Koch, Brian D. Jamison, R. Michael Hardesty, Brandi J. McCarty, Christoph Kiemle, Randall S. Collander, Diana L. Bartels, Steven Albers, Brent Shaw, Daniel L. Birkenheuer, and W. Alan Brewer

of 1993. Unfortunately, because of inadequate spatial and temporal resolution, the existing radiosonde network in the United States is not well suited to capture the LLJ. Climatological studies using radiosondes have helped to clarify LLJ mechanisms (e.g., Bonner 1968 ), but because they are often limited to a single observation within each LLJ sampled they cannot describe horizontal wind or thermodynamic gradients with precision. More recent studies employing the National Oceanic and

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Robert J. Conzemius and Evgeni Fedorovich

these types of heterogeneity are eliminated when periodic boundary conditions are applied. f. Simulated turbulence structure compared to observations In this section, a y – z cross section, showing the turbulence structure from the simulations, is compared to a time–height cross section from the frequency-modulated, continuous-wave (FM-CW) S-band radar, which was located next to HARLIE in the IHOP_2002 experiment. Figure 11 shows the y – z cross section at 1950 UTC. The temperature field

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