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Brian J. Carroll, Belay B. Demoz, David D. Turner, and Ruben Delgado

1968 ; Bonin et al. 2015 ), allowing production of elevated instability. In these situations the LLJ carries moist warm air above the inversion, and the high wind speeds allow transport across hundreds of kilometers with air parcels eventually reaching their level of free convection if sufficiently lifted by a synoptic front, baroclinic boundary, elevated convergence, MCS outflow, or bore waves ( Trier and Parsons 1993 ; Augustine and Caracena 1994 ; Wilson and Roberts 2006 ; Berg et al. 2015

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Dana Mueller, Bart Geerts, Zhien Wang, Min Deng, and Coltin Grasmick

-lapse photography . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 27 , 1355 – 1361 , doi: 10.1175/2010JTECHA1472.1 . 10.1175/2010JTECHA1472.1 Crook , N. A. , 1986 : The effect of ambient stratification and moisture on the motion of atmospheric undular bores . J. Atmos. Sci. , 43 , 171 – 181 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1986)043<0171:TEOASA>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1986)043<0171:TEOASA>2.0.CO;2 Crook , N. A. , 1988 : Trapping of low-level internal gravity waves . J. Atmos. Sci. , 45 , 1533 – 1541 , doi: 10

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J. W. Wilson, S. B. Trier, D. W. Reif, R. D. Roberts, and T. M. Weckwerth

advection. Other studies have discussed nocturnal initiation being associated with bores and gravity waves ( Pitchford and London 1962 ; Whiteman et al. 2006 ; Knupp 2006 ; Koch et al. 2008 ; Browning et al. 2010 ; Marsham et al. 2011 ) or warm advection and mesoscale convergence within the exit region of the low-level jet (e.g., Tuttle and Davis 2006 ; Stelten and Gallus 2017 ). Wilson and Roberts (2006) noted that midlevel convergence and conditional instability were major factors in

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Coltin Grasmick, Bart Geerts, David D. Turner, Zhien Wang, and T. M. Weckwerth

solitary wave, finding that the wave passage reduced convective inhibition (CIN) and lowered the LFC, making CI more likely. However, other studies (e.g., Toms et al. 2017 ) have shown that propagating bores may lift parcels to their lifting condensation level (LCL) without producing CI. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions when these propagating wave structures trigger CI is needed. The present study analyzes nocturnal, elevated CI near an MCS outflow boundary during the

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David M. Loveless, Timothy J. Wagner, David D. Turner, Steven A. Ackerman, and Wayne F. Feltz

. , 139 , 211 – 223 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2010MWR3376.1 . 10.1175/2010MWR3376.1 Coleman , T. A. , K. R. Knupp , and D. E. Herzmann , 2010 : An undular bore and gravity waves illustrated by dramatic time-lapse photography . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 27 , 1355 – 1361 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JTECHA1472.1 . 10.1175/2010JTECHA1472.1 Colman , B. R. , 1990 : Thunderstorms above frontal surfaces in environments without positive CAPE. Part I: A climatology . Mon. Wea. Rev

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Manda B. Chasteen, Steven E. Koch, and David B. Parsons

absorption lidar, and a molecular Doppler lidar . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 25 , 1267 – 1287 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JTECHA951.1 . 10.1175/2007JTECHA951.1 Lindzen , R. , and K. Tung , 1976 : Banded convective activity and ducted gravity waves . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 104 , 1602 – 1617 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1976)104<1602:BCAADG>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1976)104<1602:BCAADG>2.0.CO;2 Maddox , R. A. , 1980 : Meoscale convective complexes . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 61

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Aaron Johnson, Xuguang Wang, Kevin R. Haghi, and David B. Parsons

. Rev. , 139 , 247 – 271 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2010MWR3422.1 . 10.1175/2010MWR3422.1 Martin , W. J. , and A. Shapiro , 2007 : Discrimination of bird and insect radar echoes in clear air using high-resolution radars . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 24 , 1215 – 1230 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH2038.1 . 10.1175/JTECH2038.1 Maxworthy , T. , 1980 : On the formation of nonlinear internal waves from the gravitational collapse of mixed regions in two and three dimensions . J. Fluid

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Aaron Johnson and Xuguang Wang

1. Introduction Atmospheric bores are commonly observed in the nocturnal convective environment in the Great Plains ( Haghi et al. 2017 ). This is because the stable boundary layer and low-level jet often provide a suitable wave duct, while convectively generated cold pools frequently provide an obstacle to this stable and ducted low-level flow ( Rottman and Simpson 1989 ; Johnson et al. 2018 ). Several studies have demonstrated the importance of bores in both the initiation and maintenance of

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Hristo G. Chipilski, Xuguang Wang, and David B. Parsons

bore. The objectively determined outflow classification results ( Figs. 3a,c ) verify successfully against the vertical cross sections for the corresponding forecast lead times ( Figs. 3b,d ). More specifically, the vertical cross section from Fig. 3b shows classical density current signatures, such as an enhanced prefrontal updraft and a sudden drop in the virtual potential temperature ( ) following the passage of the boundary. Contrastingly, there is an amplitude-ordered wave train in the wake

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Samuel K. Degelia, Xuguang Wang, David J. Stensrud, and Aaron Johnson

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 87 , 327 – 342 , https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-87-3-327 . 10.1175/BAMS-87-3-327 Schwartz , C. S. , and R. A. Sobash , 2017 : Generating probabilistic forecasts from convection-allowing ensembles using neighborhood approaches: A review and recommendations . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 145 , 3397 – 3418 , https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-16-0400.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-16-0400.1 Scorer , R. , 1949 : Theory of waves in the lee of

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