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Daniel J. Cecil and Sayak K. Biswas

nadir trace directly beneath the aircraft ( Uhlhorn and Black 2003 ; Uhlhorn et al. 2007 ; Klotz and Uhlhorn 2014 ). The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an experimental four-channel, C-band, synthetic thinned array radiometer designed to map ocean surface wind speeds in hurricanes. Wind speed retrievals from HIRAD take advantage of the fact that the C-band emissivity of the ocean surface increases with increasing foam coverage, which results from wave breaking ( Nordberg et al. 1971

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Peter Black, Lee Harrison, Mark Beaubien, Robert Bluth, Roy Woods, Andrew Penny, Robert W. Smith, and James D. Doyle

humidity during descent. Surface winds from AMSU and ASCAT satellite sensors near 0000 UTC 25 June, about 3 h prior to the sonde deployments (not shown), indicate that surface winds along the DC-8 flight track were between 7 and 10 m s −1 . This was, once again, a strong enough wind to produce some limited whitecapping from breaking waves, mixing the ocean upper layer and minimizing differences between skin and bulk SST. The fast-fall sondes traveled only 3.5–4.0 km to the north and northeast

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