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Yi Dai, Sharanya J. Majumdar, and David S. Nolan

the vortex can be resistant to the environment shear to some extent. Reasor et al. (2004) argued that the tilt asymmetry of the vortex would be damped by radiation of sheared vortex Rossby waves. Recent studies have also identified a reduction in vortex tilt under moderate shear preceding the TC intensification (e.g., Miyamoto and Nolan 2018 ; Rios-Berrios et al. 2018 ). Moreover, the diabatic heating and consequent secondary circulation in TCs are thought to greatly enhance that resistance

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Patrick Duran and John Molinari

convective maximum overnight and in the early morning, and a convective minimum in the afternoon, radiative heating tendencies are a natural suspect in its evolution. The idealized simulations of Navarro and Hakim (2016) implicate periodic oscillations of upper-level radiative heating in the evolution of the TC diurnal cycle. Their results exhibit characteristics of an inertia–gravity wave response with an outward-propagating horizontal phase speed of 9.8 m s −1 , which is consistent with the outward

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Jonathan Martinez, Michael M. Bell, Robert F. Rogers, and James D. Doyle

( Rogers et al. 2017 , their Fig. 1), which contributed to a 48-h intensity forecast error of 105 kt (1 kt ≈ 0.51 m s −1 ; Kimberlain et al. 2016 ). In this study, we utilize high-resolution observations collected during the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Tropical Cyclone Intensity experiment (TCI; Doyle et al. 2017 ) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Intensity Forecasting Experiment (IFEX; Rogers et al. 2006 , 2013b ) to examine Hurricane Patricia’s structural

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William A. Komaromi and James D. Doyle

momentum associated with the eddies. Leroux et al. (2013) found a similar evolution, with trough interaction triggering secondary eyewall formation for TC Dora in the Indian Ocean. In a follow-on study, Leroux et al. (2016) found an optimal position of the TC relative to the trough in order for favorable interaction to occur. However, for many real cases, the temporal window in which EFC promotes TC intensification will be short: positive EFC may occur too far from the TC if the trough is not

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Robert G. Nystrom, Fuqing Zhang, Erin B. Munsell, Scott A. Braun, Jason A. Sippel, Yonghui Weng, and Kerry Emanuel

false alarms along the eastern seaboard of the United States as a hurricane that was initially forecasted to make landfall, in reality, stayed out at sea. Berg (2016) described the full life cycle of Joaquin. Instead of developing from an African easterly wave, the common initial source of major hurricanes in the North Atlantic ( Landsea 1993 ), Joaquin developed from an upper-level low pressure system. Joaquin became a tropical storm by 0000 UTC 29 September to the north-northeast of the Bahamas

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