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Jie Feng and Xuguang Wang

atmosphere–wave–ocean models for hurricane research and prediction . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 88 , 311 – 318 , . 10.1175/BAMS-88-3-311 Christophersen , H. , A. Aksoy , J. Dunion , and K. Sellwood , 2017 : The impact of NASA Global Hawk unmanned aircraft dropwindsonde observations on tropical cyclone track, intensity, and structure: Case studies . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 145 , 1817 – 1830 , . 10.1175/MWR-D-16

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T. Connor Nelson, Lee Harrison, and Kristen L. Corbosiero

). If there is sufficient energy provided to the TC from the ocean, the cyclone can resist the weakening effects of shear and maintain its strength or intensify (e.g., Black et al. 2002 ). As strong updrafts are often located near the radius of maximum wind (RMW; Black et al. 1994 ; Rogers et al. 2013 ; Stern et al. 2016 ) or just inside the RMW ( Jorgensen et al. 1985 ; Marks et al. 2008 ), they can also be associated with intensification following RMW contraction ( Stern et al. 2015

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Robert G. Nystrom and Fuqing Zhang

between large-scale forcing (e.g., rising branch of the Madden–Julian oscillation and deep convection coupled with a Central American gyre) and mesoscale processes including a localized gap wind event ( Kimberlain et al. 2016 ; Bosart et al. 2017 ). Patricia reached tropical storm intensity 18 h after becoming a tropical depression, eventually becoming a hurricane 24 h later, near 0000 UTC 22 October. At this time, Patricia was located in a very favorable environment with anomalously warm ocean

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Patrick Duran and John Molinari

of the background environment. More recent literature (e.g., Wirth 2003 ) has noted that strong, shallow temperature inversions immediately above the cold-point tropopause are a common feature in the tropics, now known as the tropopause inversion layer (TIL). On the planetary scale, TIL formation and maintenance has been tied to planetary wave dynamics ( Grise et al. 2010 ) and vertical gradients of radiative heating across the tropopause ( Randel et al. 2007 ), but the relative contributions of

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David R. Ryglicki, Joshua H. Cossuth, Daniel Hodyss, and James D. Doyle

), and the difference between maximum potential intensity (MPI; Rotunno and Emanuel 1987 ) and current intensity (POT). The potential intensity difference allows for a simple quantification of thermodynamic favorability. It should be noted that some of the refined predictors, such as total precipitable water and ocean heat content, do not cover the entire historical dataset in SHIPS (including Guillermo), so homogeneous climatological comparisons cannot be made with the newer predictors at this time

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