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  • Waves, oceanic x
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Daniel B. Whitt and Leif N. Thomas

) that are focused primarily on the radiation of near-inertial energy from the mixed layer, the dynamics of the waves in the ocean interior, and the general redistribution of near-inertial energy by the background flow after generation. In contrast, the focus here is on the generation process in the boundary layer. In particular, we study how the physics of resonance (e.g., D’Asaro 1985 ; Crawford and Large 1996 ; Skyllingstad et al. 2000 ; Mickett et al. 2010 ) is modified by the presence of a

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Anne-Marie E. G. Brunner-Suzuki, Miles A. Sundermeyer, and M.-Pascale Lelong

be of order ≈ N / f . Despite the potential importance of Bu noted above, for simplicity, the primary simulations reported here will be for fixed Bu, with only a few simulations with altered Bu included. Table 1. Base-case parameters for simulation with infrequent vortex plus wave forcing. Oceanic values were chosen based on observations during CMO. Note that IP refers to inertial periods. The outline of this paper is as follows: Section 2 describes the numerical methodology and normal mode

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Anne-Marie E. G. Brunner-Suzuki, Miles A. Sundermeyer, and M.-Pascale Lelong

threshold, the vortex is thought to be torn apart and ceases to exist (e.g., Brickman and Ruddick 1990 ). In this paper, we explore the stability of submesoscale coherent vortices. We begin with a review of the physical oceanic context of these processes. Internal wave breaking can lead to shear instability and overturning. Surrounding fluid is mixed, energy is converted into potential energy (e.g., Birch and Sundermeyer 2011 ), scalar quantities are dissipated, and a patch of relatively well mixed

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Eric Kunze and Miles A. Sundermeyer

1. Introduction A number of tracer-release experiments in the ocean’s stratified interior have reported 1–5-km horizontal diffusivities K h ~ O (1) m 2 s −1 (e.g., Ledwell et al. 1998 ; Sundermeyer and Ledwell 2001 ; D. A. Birch et al. 2015, unpublished manuscript). This is an order of magnitude larger than predictions for internal-wave shear dispersion K h ~ K z | χ z | 2 based on Young et al. (1982) , where | χ z | = |∫ V z dt | and the vertical shear V z = ( u z , υ z

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Ren-Chieh Lien and Thomas B. Sanford

1. Introduction Oceanic variations at horizontal scales smaller than O (100) km, vertical scales less than the order of tens of meters, and frequencies between inertial and buoyancy frequencies are generally thought to be internal waves. The most prominent features of internal waves are that they propagate and do not possess Ertel potential vorticity (PV). Müller (1984) proposes that a PV-carrying finestructure, termed vortical motion, coexists with internal waves at the same spatial scales

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Daniel B. Whitt, Leif N. Thomas, Jody M. Klymak, Craig M. Lee, and Eric A. D’Asaro

0022112005004374 Bühler , O. , and M. Holmes-Cerfon , 2011 : Decay of an internal tide due to random topography in the ocean . J. Fluid Mech. , 678 , 271 – 293 , https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2011.115 . 10.1017/jfm.2011.115 Danioux , E. , P. Klein , and P. Riviere , 2012 : Spontaneous inertia-gravity-wave generation by surface-intensified turbulence . J. Fluid Mech. , 699 , 153 – 173 , https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2012.90 . 10.1017/jfm.2012.90 D’Asaro , E. A. , 2003 : Performance of

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E. Kunze, J. M. Klymak, R.-C. Lien, R. Ferrari, C. M. Lee, M. A. Sundermeyer, and L. Goodman

. L. Rudnick , 2012 : The spatial distribution and annual cycle of upper ocean thermohaline structure . J. Geophys. Res. , 117 , C02027 , doi: 10.1029/2011JC007033 . Cole , S. T. , D. L. Rudnick , and J. A. Colosi , 2010 : Seasonal evolution of upper-ocean horizontal structure and the remnant mixed layer . J. Geophys. Res. , 115 , C04012 , doi: 10.1029/2009JC005654 . D’Asaro , E. A. , and H. Perkins , 1984 : The near-inertial internal wave spectrum in the late summer

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Gualtiero Badin, Amit Tandon, and Amala Mahadevan

= 25.44 for tracer deployed in a streak at the beginning of the numerical integration (full line) at days 10 (dashed line) and 20 (dotted-dashed line). c. Comparison with other mechanisms for horizontal mixing The values found for K y can be compared with the values found from other mechanisms for horizontal mixing acting in the oceanic pycnocline. Holmes-Cerfon et al. (2011) calculated the horizontal particle dispersion due to random waves in a three-dimensional rotating and stratified

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Jörn Callies and Raffaele Ferrari

1. Introduction Atmospheric cooling and surface winds frequently mix the surface layer of the ocean. The resulting mixed layer mediates the transfer of heat and momentum between the atmosphere and ocean and thereby affects both the atmospheric climate and the oceanic general circulation. The evolution of the ocean mixed layer has traditionally been understood column by column; atmospheric cooling and wind forcing leads to mixing and deepening of the mixed layer into the thermocline below. It is

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Leif N. Thomas, John R. Taylor, Eric A. D’Asaro, Craig M. Lee, Jody M. Klymak, and Andrey Shcherbina

, F 21 = E 21 , and F 22 = E 22 and was solved numerically. REFERENCES Alford , M. , 2003 : Redistribution of energy available for ocean mixing by long-range propagation of internal waves . Nature , 423 , 159 – 163 , doi: 10.1038/nature01628 . Boccaletti , G. , R. Ferrari , and B. Fox-Kemper , 2007 : Mixed layer instabilities and restratification . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 37 , 2228 – 2250 , doi: 10.1175/JPO3101.1 . Craik , A. D. D. , 1989 : The stability of unbounded two

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