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Yafang Zhong and Zhengyu Liu

multidecadal memory of the PMV may reside in the slow westward propagation of the first baroclinic-mode Rossby waves in the subpolar North Pacific Ocean. Furthermore, the subsurface thermocline or halocline variability may affect the surface climate through local convective feedback as well as oceanic advection and interaction with the Kuroshio Extension (KOE). In particular, salinity variability is suggested to provide an indispensable ingredient for both the time-scale selection and convective growth

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K. Shafer Smith and John Marshall

flow ( Gill et al. 1974 ; Robinson and McWilliams 1974 ; Stammer 1997 ; Smith 2007 ), extracting their energy from the stores of available potential energy in the mean oceanic density structure. Rossby waves, owing their existence to mean potential vorticity (PV) gradients, mutually interact with one another and, in strongly unstable flows, grow to finite amplitude, exciting turbulent cascades. Even weakly unstable flows can lead to turbulence and the production of coherent vortices. In either

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Carl Wunsch and Patrick Heimbach

regarded as a nearly separate subject. Before analyzing the estimated results, it is useful to recall the venerable ( Veronis and Stommel 1956 ) and well-supported theory ( Gill 1982 ; Pedlosky 2003 ; Cessi et al. 2004 ) of large-scale ocean response to relatively small disturbances. One expects the baroclinic open ocean to be governed in large part by the zonal propagation of signals by baroclinic Rossby waves. At midlatitudes, the group velocity of such a wave requires on the order of a decade to

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Baylor Fox-Kemper and Raffaele Ferrari

radius , long Rossby wave speed ( c R = βL d 2 ), and mixing length approximation ( κ 1 = L e U e ), this boundary layer width is comparable to the mixing length for eddies with U e = c R , multiplied by an O (1) geometric factor: Chelton et al. (2007) show that relevant eddy velocity scales are close to the Rossby wave speed. This width is 50 km for the typical ocean values above. 11 A uniform solution valid in the interior and in the western boundary at the same level of approximation is

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J. A. Whitehead

1. Introduction A clear understanding of the dynamics of ocean circulation is required for many fundamental topics within earth science. For example, the contribution of ocean circulation to equator-to-pole heat flux is central to the explanation of past climate changes and is required for any prediction of future climate change. In addition, ocean circulation has fundamental consequences to biological and chemical changes within the ocean, including sequestering of CO 2 . It is now well known

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Onno Bokhove and Vijaya Ambati

these cases, the hybrid Rossby-shelf mode is a combination of an azimuthal mode number m = 0–Rossby mode in the deep ocean absorbing into an m = 2–shelf mode at the western shelf, which after traversing counterclockwise along the southern shelf edge at R s = 0.8 R radiates again into the deep-ocean “planetary” Rossby mode. Such behavior is suggested directly from the dispersion relations (A6) and (A15) of the invisicid or free planetary Rossby wave and shelf modes, plotted separately in

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Michael A. Spall

circulations in small ocean basins. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 33 , 2333 – 2340 . Pedlosky , J. , 2009 : The response of a weakly stratified layer to buoyancy forcing. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , in press . Phillips , N. A. , 1954 : Energy transformations and meridional circulations associated with simple baroclinic waves in a two-level, quasigeostrophic model. Tellus , 6 , 273 – 286 . Pickart , R. S. , and M. A. Spall , 2007 : Impact of Labrador Sea convection on the North Atlantic meridional

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