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Bin Liu, Huiqing Liu, Lian Xie, Changlong Guan, and Dongliang Zhao

1. Introduction Tropical cyclones (TCs) are intense cyclonic atmospheric vortices originated in warm tropical oceans. They are strongly coupled to ocean mixed layer and surface waves through momentum, heat, and moisture exchanges at the air–sea interface. In a TC system, the atmospheric forcing drives sea surface waves and underlying ocean currents, while the energy for a TC to maintain or strengthen its intensity comes mainly from the ocean through air–sea heat and moisture

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Il-Ju Moon, Isaac Ginis, and Tetsu Hara

1. Introduction Accurate forecasts of extreme wind waves associated with hurricanes are of great importance for minimizing the loss of life and property in maritime and coastal areas. In recent years considerable efforts have been made to improve the skill of ocean wave modeling under hurricane conditions ( Moon et al. 2003 , hereafter M03 ; Chao et al. 2005 , hereafter C05 ; Tolman et al. 2005 , hereafter T05 ; Tolman and Alves 2005 , hereafter TA05 ), but several issues still remain

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Brandon G. Reichl, Isaac Ginis, Tetsu Hara, Biju Thomas, Tobias Kukulka, and Dong Wang

-eddy simulation (LES) studies (e.g., Noh et al. 2004 ; Polton and Belcher 2007 ; Kukulka et al. 2009 ). Because the intensity of the Langmuir turbulence depends on the relative importance of the wind forcing and the wave forcing, it strongly depends on the sea state through its surface wave field. Therefore, existing upper-ocean mixing parameterizations without explicit sea-state dependence may introduce significant errors in conditions where the surface wave field is not in equilibrium with local wind

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Daria Gushchina and Boris Dewitte

1. Introduction The intraseasonal tropical variability (ITV) is a major component of the atmospheric circulation in the tropics. One usually distinguishes two modes: the so-called coherent Madden–Julian oscillations (MJO) with periods in the 30–90 day band and zonal wavenumbers of 1–3 ( Madden and Julian 1972 ; Zhang 2005 ) and the equatorial convectively coupled waves [ Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 (WK99)] that may be considered as having a “stochastic” character relative to the slow oceanic

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James D. Doyle

fluid interface in the wave boundary layer, which underscores the potential importance of ocean surface waves in air–sea interaction processes. Ocean surface gravity waves can have a significant impact on the interaction between the atmosphere and ocean through modulation of the transfer of momentum and enthalpy across the air–sea interface (e.g., Donelan 1990 ). As air flows over the sea, wind stress contributes to both the generation of surface gravity waves and the forcing of local ocean

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Tommy G. Jensen

1272 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VoLtn~ 124Artificial Retardation of Barotropic Waves in Layered Ocean Models TOMMY G. JENSENDepartment of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado and International Research Centre for Computational Hydrodynamics, Danish Hydraulic Institute, Harsholm, Denmark (Manuscript received 1 May 1995, in final form 23 October 1995

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J-P. Boulanger, P. Delecluse, C. Maes, and C. Lévy

( Schopf and Suarez 1988 ), or the SST mode in the fast wave limit ( Neelin 1991 ) have been suggested to play a role in ENSO variability. In particular, the delayed action oscillator theory involves the linear ocean dynamics associated with the propagation and reflection of long equatorial waves ( Battisti 1988 ). Mainly, the Kelvin and three gravest meridional mode Rossby waves are expected to play a dominant role in the equatorial ocean dynamics and ENSO variability ( Battisti 1988 ). Kelvin waves

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Lin Zhang and Leo Oey

,” we seek a greater generality by using a dimensionless surface wave-induced air–sea exchange coefficient. The complex intensity-change identification problem is thus reduced to examining two parameters, and their coincidences, which, relatively speaking, can be more easily deduced from observations. However, as our analysis and discussion (last section) will indicate, this should not be misunderstood as an oversimplistic view of a complex problem. It is well established that the ocean’s surface

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John K. Dukowicz

1. Introduction The governing equations of compressible fluid dynamics contain acoustic waves. In low Mach number flows, typical of atmospheric or oceanic conditions, acoustic waves play no essential role and yet they severely constrain the time step in numerical modeling. Thus, there has long been an interest in approximating the governing equations to eliminate or “filter out” acoustic waves. We shall consider such approximations but not alternative methods for avoiding the problem, such as

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Jean Philippe Duvel

SEPTEMBER 1990 J E A N P H I L I P P E D U V E L 1855Convection over Tropical Africa and the Atlantic Ocean during Northern Summer. Part II: Modulation by Easterly Waves JEAN PHILIPPE DUVELLaboratoire de M~tdorologie Dynamique du C.N.R.S., Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France(Manuscript received 31 October 1988, in final form 20 March 1990) ABSTRACT

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