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David M. Schultz, Bogdan Antonescu, and Alessandro Chiariello

frontogenesis associated with a nondivergent vortex . J. Atmos. Sci. , 41 , 1242 – 1248 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1984)041<1242:AKAOFA>2.0.CO;2 . Doyle , J. D. , and N. A. Bond , 2001 : Research aircraft observations and numerical simulations of a warm front approaching Vancouver Island . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 129 , 978 – 998 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<0978:RAOANS>2.0.CO;2 . Elliott , R. D. , 1958 : California storm characteristics and weather modification . J. Meteor. , 15 , 486 – 493

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Oscar Martínez-Alvarado, Suzanne L. Gray, and John Methven

Kingdom, northern Europe, and Scandinavia. Heavy precipitation can have an important societal impact, as it can lead to extreme weather events, such as flash flooding. Water vapor condensation in the rising air also releases latent heat, which typically intensifies the ascending motion and the cyclone near the surface (e.g., Tracton 1973 ; Davis 1992 ; Stoelinga 1996 ; Ahmadi-Givi et al. 2004 ; Grams et al. 2011 ). For example, studying a cyclone that reached its maximum intensity (based on mean

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G. Vaughan, J. Methven, D. Anderson, B. Antonescu, L. Baker, T. P. Baker, S. P. Ballard, K. N. Bower, P. R. A. Brown, J. Chagnon, T. W. Choularton, J. Chylik, P. J. Connolly, P. A. Cook, R. J. Cotton, J. Crosier, C. Dearden, J. R. Dorsey, T. H. A. Frame, M. W. Gallagher, M. Goodliff, S. L. Gray, B. J. Harvey, P. Knippertz, H. W. Lean, D. Li, G. Lloyd, O. Martínez–Alvarado, J. Nicol, J. Norris, E. Öström, J. Owen, D. J. Parker, R. S. Plant, I. A. Renfrew, N. M. Roberts, P. Rosenberg, A. C. Rudd, D. M. Schultz, J. P. Taylor, T. Trzeciak, R. Tubbs, A. K. Vance, P. J. van Leeuwen, A. Wellpott, and A. Woolley

The combination of new aircraft measurements and high-resolution modeling reveal finescale wind structure in an intense extratropical windstorm. Extratropical cyclones approaching western Europe along the North Atlantic storm track are a major cause of damaging winds and heavy precipitation. A particular problem in forecasting these cyclones is that the highest-impact weather within them arises from mesoscale structures such as fronts and bands of strong winds. These structures are influenced

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Jeffrey M. Chagnon and Suzanne L. Gray

1. Introduction Heating and cooling due to diabatic processes result in changes to stratification and generation of flow anomalies through dynamic adjustment toward balance. Such changes are manifest as modifications to the potential vorticity (PV). The consequences of diabatic modification of PV (hereafter diabatic PV) in extratropical cyclones have been investigated in numerous contexts, including rapid cyclogenesis (e.g., Kuo et al. 1991 ; Stoelinga 1996 ; Wernli and Davies 1997

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David M. Schultz and Joseph M. Sienkiewicz

2005 (pennant, full barb, and half-barb denote 50, 10, and 5 kt, respectively, where 1 kt = 0.514 m s −1 ; separation between displayed wind vectors is 12.5 km). The colored wind barbs represent wind speed (kt) according to the scale in the top-right corner, the pink lines represent satellite overpass times, and the scale bar in the top-left corner represents 100 nautical miles (n mi, or 185 km). To diagnose the origin of these strong winds in the lower troposphere, an Advanced Research Weather

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Sam Hardy, David M. Schultz, and Geraint Vaughan

1. Introduction Extratropical cyclones are a major contributor to high-impact weather across the United Kingdom, with about 70% of extreme precipitation events in the United Kingdom occurring in the presence of cyclones ( Pfahl and Wernli 2012 ) and their attendant fronts ( Catto and Pfahl 2013 ). These heavy precipitation events can cause huge socioeconomic impacts. As a recent example, the summer and autumn floods of 2012 resulted in over GBP 1.2 billion in accumulated insured losses across

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Oscar Martínez-Alvarado, Laura H. Baker, Suzanne L. Gray, John Methven, and Robert S. Plant

observations from automatic weather stations across the north of the United Kingdom. The cyclone was named Friedhelm by the Free University of Berlin’s adopt-a-vortex scheme ( http://www.met.fu-berlin.de/adopt-a-vortex/ ). With its aircraft field campaigns, DIAMET joins worldwide efforts to sample weather systems through aircraft observations (e.g., Schäfler et al. 2011 ; Sapp et al. 2013 ). To the authors’ knowledge there have only been two previous research flights into an intense cyclone of this type

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Ross N. Bannister

discussed in section 2a ). These adaptive schemes, plus a static localization scheme that has a similar factorization property, are studied. The performance of each scheme is evaluated in terms of (i) the structure of the moderation functions that are implied and (ii) the effect on the degree of balance. It is beyond the scope of this paper to run assimilation experiments with these cases, but the balance diagnostics shown are applied to ensemble forecasts from a full weather forecasting model and so

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C. Dearden, G. Vaughan, T. Tsai, and J.-P. Chen

model performance, we offer some insight into the response of the model to different levels of microphysical complexity, and discuss the implications for the parameterization of ice processes in operational weather forecast models. 2. Model description All the numerical simulations presented here were conducted using version 3.4.1 of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. Each simulation was configured with a single domain at 5-km horizontal grid spacing. This resolution is sufficiently

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