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Margaret A. LeMone, Fei Chen, Mukul Tewari, Jimy Dudhia, Bart Geerts, Qun Miao, Richard L. Coulter, and Robert L. Grossman

1. Introduction This paper the first part of a two-part series that uses a combination of numerical simulations and observations of the fair-weather convective boundary layer (CBL) to explore the relationship of surface heterogeneity and associated fluxes (W m −2 ) of sensible heat H and latent heat LE, to CBL potential temperature Θ (K), mixing ratio Q (g kg −1 ), depth, and circulations on scales from 1 to 100 km. At the same time, we evaluate the numerical simulations and

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Margaret A. LeMone, Fei Chen, Mukul Tewari, Jimy Dudhia, Bart Geerts, Qun Miao, Richard L. Coulter, and Robert L. Grossman

1. Introduction This paper is the second of a two-part series that uses a combination of numerical simulations and observations to explore the relationship of surface heterogeneity and associated fluxes (W m −2 ) of sensible heat H and latent heat (LE), to potential temperature Θ (K), mixing ratio Q (g kg −1 ), depth, and convective structure on scales from 1 to 100 km in the fair-weather convective boundary layer (CBL), while evaluating the numerical simulations. The

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Margaret A. LeMone, Mukul Tewari, Fei Chen, Joseph G. Alfieri, and Dev Niyogi

1984 ; Pan and Mahrt 1987 ; Noilhan and Planton 1989 ; Chen et al. 1996 ; Chen and Dudhia 2001a ; Ek et al. 2003 ) developed for mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. The Noah LSM and its predecessors have been extensively tested in uncoupled mode (e.g., Chen et al. 1996 , 2003 ; Koren et al. 1999 ; Slater et al. 2001 ; Sridhar et al. 2002 ; Mitchell et al. 2004 ; Chen 2005 ) and in coupled mode with atmospheric models (e.g., Chen et al. 1997 , 2007 ; Yucel et al. 1998

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F. Couvreux, F. Guichard, P. H. Austin, and F. Chen

Weather Service network, from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) southern Great Plains (SGP) network and the specific soundings deployed for IHOP_2002 are used to document the mesoscale variability. In addition, in situ aircraft measurements from the Naval Research Laboratory P-3 (P-3) and the University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) that flew from 0700 to 1400 Local Daylight Time (LDT) 14 June 2002 (1200–1900 UTC; UTC = LDT + 5) sampled the horizontal variability within the boundary

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Roger M. Wakimoto and Hanne V. Murphey

current is shown in Fig. 14a . This model assumes that baroclinically generated horizontal vorticity along a boundary is opposite to the horizontal vorticity associated with the line-normal wind shear at low levels. A modification to the model based on the meso- β analysis of the IHOP_2002 cases is presented in Fig. 14b . The vorticity produced by the environmental low-level wind shear is replaced by solenoidally generated vorticity created by the adjacent convergence boundary. Convection initiated

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Robert J. Conzemius and Evgeni Fedorovich

(ISFF) stations were deployed in the Oklahoma and Texas Panhandles along an approximately 50-km north–south line centered on the Homestead site. Additionally, balloonborne sounding data were available from nearby National Weather Service (NWS) launch sites at Amarillo, Texas (AMA), and Dodge City, Kansas (DDC). Figure 1 shows the locations of these measurement sites. The overall IHOP_2002 field measurement layout is described in greater detail in Weckwerth et al. (2004) . The observational data

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